Apush Dbq - 1

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Shaina Fober

Although political divisions first emerged over domestic issues, they deepened

during a series of crises over foreign policy that reopened the troublesome issue of

America’s relationship with Great Britain. Domestic and foreign policy were, however,

never entirely separate, since decisions in one area frequently carried implications for the

other. Foreign and domestic policy (1789-1803) spans from the foreign affairs of

Washington, to Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase. Between these times is the Election of

1796, Adams’s administration, concerning a variety of perspectives of historical figures

on financial policies and foreign countries, such as the Alien Act and Louisiana Purchase

Treaty, were all in relation to the restrictions and powers of the United States


Under the term of Washington, there were many affairs to deal with, mainly

foreign. Hamilton saw much to admire in Britain, and when Britain was so burdened with

debt that it seemed on the verge of bankruptcy, his reforms restored his country’s

financial health. The success of Hamilton’s financial program, moreover, depended on

smooth relations with Britain: duties on imports provided a major source of federal

revenue, and most American imports came from Britain. Hamilton did not believe in

returning the Americans to British rule; he had, after all, fought for independence as an

officer of the Continental army. Nor did he seek to establish a monarchy in the United

States. But he thought a friendly relationship with the onetime mother country would best

serve American interests. In contrast, Jefferson remained deeply hostile to Britain, and

his Anglophobia played a central role in his growing opposition to Hamilton. The

treasury secretary’s method of finance, with a bank and large funded debt, seemed, as in

part it was, based on a British model, one that to Jefferson was dangerous because it

allowed abundant opportunity for corruption. For example, Jefferson stated, “The

incorporation of a bank, and the powers assumed by this bill, have not, in my opinion,

been delegated to the United States, by the Constitution.” (Document C). Jefferson was

also deeply loyal to France, the Americans’ old ally in the War for Independence. While

serving as minister to France during the 1780’s, Jefferson had witnessed the beginnings

of the French Revolution, which in his opinion only tightened the bond between France

and America, whose Revolution, he thought, had inspired the French.

These differences widened as issues in foreign policy came to dominate

Washington’s administration, and they gradually marked a division. In 1790, Britain and

Spain seemed likely to go to war; then Britain seemed headed for the war with France

that finally broke out in 1793. Jefferson argued that Britain’s situation gave the United

States an opportunity to secure concessions in return for American neutrality. The British

had never evacuated their posts in the Northwest, and westerners suspected the British of

using those bases to provoke Indian attacks on the American frontier. But on April 22,

1793, Washington, influenced by Hamilton, who desperately wanted to avoid any

altercation with Britain, issued a proclamation that essentially announced American

neutrality without even trying to secure any concessions in return. A few months later,

Jefferson submitted his resignation as secretary of state, which took effect at the end of

the year.

Since the Farewell Address was understood as Washington’s parting advice to his

country, it was widely read and remains one of the most frequently reprinted documents

in American history. It was a moving document, beginning with expressions of the sixty-

four-year-old Washington’s gratitude to his “beloved country” for the honors and

confidence it had invested in him and a reference to “the increasing...
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