Chapters 1-5 Study Guide
Columbus'/Spanish treatment of the native Americans [book & our documents] Early settlements in North America - prior to Columbus [generalization of what they were like] Influence of horses on Native Americans
Chesapeake & the Lower South:
Early settlement conditions – disease ridden small settlements originally established for the discovery of gold and profit. Not intended to become long term and inhabited by mainly young single men with few women or families. Jamestown relationship with Native Americans before De La Warr / after- before de la Warr: peaceful but somewhat tension filled relations between the Natives and Jamestown; John Smith= “kidnapped” by the Powhatan’s to show the desire of the natives for a peaceful alliance. After de la Warr- tension filled fatal relationship; de la Warr encouraged the sealing of native crops and attacks on native villages; installment of a military like regime and “Irish tactics” led to conflict between the two groups. Powhatan Confederacy - settlement's impact on this tribe- Powhatan Confederacy= loose confederation of tribes. A series of Indian attacks in 1622 leads to full on war. A peace treaty signed in 1646 banished the Chesapeake Indians from the area. By the time of the treaty the Powhatans were diseased, disorganized, and disposable. The Powhatan eventually became extinct. Purposes of colonial settlement- originally colonial settlements were intended to be used by British joint-stock companies to find gold and produce profit for investors. The colonies soon developed into a safe haven for those people seeking a safe haven from discrimination and persecution Tobacco- John Rolfe perfected the method of growing and curing tobacco. The crop became a cash crop for the south and put Virginia on firm economic ground. The destruction of the coil caused by tobacco and the decrease in price led for a push for new lands which in turn led to conflict with the natives. The crop would also put all of the south’s economic eggs in one basket and increased the demand for slavery in the colonies. Virginia House of Burgesses- The first form of representative self government to form, the House was authorized by the London Company the assembly was composed of an upper and lower house and was modeled after the English Parliament. The House would become an integral part in Virginian economics, and the first families of Virginia would come to dominate the House as over 70% of the leaders of the Virginia legislature came from first families. Indentured servants- “white slaves” their passage was paid by wealthy landholders in return for 5-7 years of service. They led a hopeful life and looked forward to “freedom dues” which they were granted upon completion of their term. The servants would become free and receive barrels of corn, clothes, and sometimes land. However, as time wore on and all of the valuable land had been claimed the indentured servants were given land less and less, and what land they could get was often in Indian territory. Slave code / slavery in the region- Slave code was brought up from the West Indies in particular Barbados in the mid 1660’s and stated that a slave and their children were slaves for life, that it was illegal to teach a slave to read or right, etc. In the deep south slave life was severe. The climate was unhealthy, the labor was life draining, and fresh imports were constantly needed to replace the dead. Plantations were far apart and communication between slaves and their families was limited. In the Chesapeake region slavery was less severe, tobacco was a less physically demanding crop, plantations were closer together, and the population was allowed to flourish...