By 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had a population greater than 1 million. Louis Sullivan contributed to the development of the skyscraper. City limits were extended outward by electric trolleys. People were attracted to the cities by amenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones. Trash became a large problem in cities due to throwaway bottles, boxes, bags, and cans.
II. The New Immigration
The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe. They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate to life in their new land. They began asking if the nation had become a melting pot or a dumping ground.
III. Southern Europe Uprooted
Immigrants left their native countries because Europe had no room for them. The population of Europe nearly doubled in the century after 1800 due to abundant supplies of fish and grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe. "America fever" caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great opportunities. Persecutions of minorities in Europe sent many fleeing immigrants to the United States. Many immigrants never intended to stay in America forever; a large number returned home with money. Those immigrants who stayed in the United States struggled to preserve their traditional culture.
IV. Reactions to the New Immigration
The federal government did virtually nothing to ease the assimilation of immigrants into American society. Trading jobs and services for votes, a powerful boss might claim the loyalty of thousands of followers. In return for their support at the polls, the boss provided jobs on the city's payroll, found housing for new arrivals, and helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in immigrant neighborhoods. The nation's social conscience...