Apush Chapter 31

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HChapter 31- Beyond the Cold War: Charting a New Course, 1988-1995

* May 1989, Mikhail Gorbachev announced that Moscow would no longer uphold pro-Soviet governments of Easter Europe * Oct 18, E.Germany run by Erich Honecker collapsed and a new liberal gov’t took over * Most detested feature of the old regime had been their restriction on travel * “woodpeckers” attacked the Wall with picks, chisels, hammers * Officially demolition was June 1990

The Bush Years: Global resolve, Domestic Drift, 1988-1993
* George Bush elected president in 1988
* Uneven record
* Internationally: reacted decisively when Iraq invaded Kuwait, took positive steps in Latin America, worked to ease Israeli-Palestinian tensions * Domestic: Record was thin; substituted platitudes for policy The Election of 1988

* Bush won Republican nomination
* Democratic contenders
* Jesse Jackson
* MA Governor Michael Dukakis
* Running mate Senator Lloyd Bentson (TX)
* Bush: “Kinder, gentler America”, “no new taxes” * Running mate Senator Dan Quayle (IND)
* Stressed Reagan’s achievements
* Better Soviet relations
* Low inflation
* 14 million new jobs
* Bush assailed Dukakis’ veto of a bill requiring MA schools to recite the Pledge even though the Supreme Court found these laws unconstitutional * Dukakis response, emphasized his accomplishments and hammered “Swiss cheese” Reagan economy * Candidates avoided serious issues in favor of TV oriented “photo opportunity” and “sound bites” * “Junk-food” campaigns

The Cold War Ends
* August 1991 President Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev signed a treaty in Moscow reducing their strategic nuclear arsenals by 25% * Secretary of Defense, Dick Cheney proposed 25% reduction of US troops in 5 years * NATO announced 50% troop reduction

* Aug 1991 Communist leaders tried to overthrow Gorbachev due to economic difficulties. Boris Yeltsin, pres. of the Russian Republic made the coup fail. * Discredited the Soviet Communist party, late 1991 proclaimed end of USSR * One issue of vital concern was the future of the Soviet arsenal of 27,000 nuclear weapons * Secretary of state, James Baker worked to ensure the safety of these weapons and prevent nuclear know-how from leaking to terrorist groups * In Niacaragua, insetad of financing the contra’s war against the leftist Sandinista gov’t, Bush worked out a program to reintegrate the contras into Nicaraguan life and politics * Dec 1989 concern over drug traffic led the US in invade Panama and capture the ruler, General Manuel Noriega * 1991 the Philippines legislature ended the agreement by which the US maintained two naval bases so the Bush administration accepted the decision and closed the based * US policy helped bring an end of apartheid (racial segregation) in South Africa * 1986 Congress had imposed economic sanctions against S. Africa, including a ban on US corporate investment * Anti-apartheid campaign led by Bishop Desmond Tutu

* 1990 S.A. released Nelson Mandela and scrapped much of its apartheid policy in 1991 * 1989 Chinese Tiananmen Square massacreBush administration curtailed diplomatic contacts and urged international financial institutions to postpone loans to China * US trade deficit with Japan was highBush along with the heads of the “big three” US auto companies tried to persuade the Japanese to buy more US products Operation Desert Storm

* Aug 2, 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait. Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein asserted claims to Kuwait’s oil fields * Bush built a consensus for a clear military objective- Iraq’s withdrawal from Kuwait- in Congress, the UN, the American ppl * Deployed 400,000 troops in Saudi Arabia and the UN insisted Saddam withdraw by Jan 15, 1991 * Jan 12, the Senate and House endorse military action against Iraq Feb 23,...
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