1)The Dawes Act struck directly at tribal organization and tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians. This legislation ignored the inherent reliance of traditional Indian culture on tribally held land, literally pulling the land out from under them. By 1900 Indians had lost 50 percent of the 156 million acres they had held just two decades earlier. The forcedassimilation doctrine of the Dawes Act remained the cornerstone of the government’s official Indian policy for nearly half a century, until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 partially reversed the individualistic approach and belatedly tried to restore the tribal basis of Indian life.
2)After the Civil War the transMississippi west became part of a rapidly industrialized economy, and thus attracted asian immigrants, and allowed for the convergence of Hispanic and American culture. The Southwest remains the most Hispanicized region in America. In no other region did the government pay for railroads, massive irrigation projects, and other economic and social developments.
The "frontier thesis" by Turner said the pioneering process transformed Old World ideas and institutions into American ideas and institutions. Westward pioneering was one of the Americans' proudest achievements. Some have said the the American people were democratized by the movement of the frontier going west to the Pacific Coast. It all happened in less than a century. 4)The landowning small American farmer were trapped in a cycle of debt and inflation primarily because they were now introduced to the deliberate economic oppression corporate business, because they were at the mercy of the harvester trust, the barbedwire trust, and the fertilizer trust, all of which could control output and raise prices to extortionate levels. Middlemen took a juicy “cut” from the selling price of the goods that the farmers bought, while operators pushed storage rates to the ceiling at ...
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