a)The New Manifest Destiny
i)American attention shifted to foreign lands b/c “closing of the frontier” 1890s led some to fear natural resources would dwindle and must be found abroad, growing importance of foreign trade and desire for new markets, fears that Eur imperialism would lead America to be left out of spoils ii)Justifications provided by Social Darwinism- only fittest nations survive, therefore just for strong nations to dominate weaker ones iii) Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885) states Anglo-Saxon “race” represented liberty, Christianity and should spread them; John Burgess wrote that duty of A-S to uplift less fortunate ppl iv)Famous Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) that countries w/ sea power great nations of history- US needed to have foreign commerce, merchant marine, navy to defend routes, and colonies to provide raw materials and bases- claim Pacific Islands, HI b)Hemispheric Hegemony
i)Sec of State James Blaine 1880s sought to expand US influence in Latin America to provide markets for surplus goods- 1889 organized Pan-American Congress. Pres Cleveland 1895 had dispute w/ GB over Venezuela border c)Hawaii and Samoa
i)Hawaii appealing b/c Navy wanted Pearl Harbor as base, Americans who had settled on island had come to dominate political + economic life of islands ii)Hawaii had been series of islands w/ self-sufficient communities. After 1810 American traders, missionaries, planters began settling there. Disease decimated Native populations; by 1840s Americans spread thru islands iii)1887 US Navy negotiated to use Pearl Harbor as Navy base; by that time sugar exports to US basis of economy, American plantation system was displacing natives from their lands iv)In response elevated nationalist Queen Liliuokalani 1891. 1890 US eliminated duty-free status of HI sugar, American planters felt only way to survive to join US-...