Apush American Pageant Chapter 1 -2

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1.Early American civilization - Incas in Peru, Mayans in Central America, and Aztecs in Mexico shapped sophisticated civilizations. Cultivation of Maize fed large pops. Didn't have oxen, horses, tech. (wheel). Strikingly accuate astronomical observations. Human sacrifices. 2. Cultivation of Maize - Maize, beans and squash were the "three-sister" farming, with beans growing on the trellis of cornstalks, and squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil. Produced high populations, like - Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee. 3. Iroquois - Northeastern woodlands, inspired by Hiawatha created closes approximation of nation-states of Peru, Mexico. Iroquois Confederacy developed the political, organization skills to sustain a robust military alliance to menance its neighbors. For most part Native people were scattered. Also many cultures, including Iroquois = Matrilinear culture.

4. Events that led up to discovery - Marco polo's rich accounts of China, more teasers of Spices and asian goods, better technology (caravel). 5. Africa - Africa was known to the Europeans for ages, but they did not have the proper technology to get there, the portugese set up trade posts for gold and slave. They originally used these slaves to work on sugar plantations on the African Coastal Islands. Portugese's adverntures here were the origins of a plantation economy.

6. Spain - Spain became much more unified after the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, they were eager to outstrip their portuguse rivals in the race to tap wealth of the indies. Portugal controlled African coast, so Spain looked westward. 7. Words Collided (Exchanges) - Essentially after the discovery of the New World, Africa became the laborers, Europe - Markets, and Americas - Resources. The New world plants - Tobacco, maize, beans tomatoes, POTATO!!! revolutionized European diet. When Columbus came back he brought horses, which natives adopted. Columbus also brought Sugar cane, and with them came dieseases. Indians also gave Europeans Syphilis. 8. Treaty of Tordesillas - (1494) between Portugal and Spain that split up lands of the New World. Spain received New World land, where as stupid portugal got land in Africa, Asia, and Brazil.

9. Conquistadors - (Spain), in the service of god, gold, glory conquistadores fanned out accross the Caribbean. Were professional soldiers and sailors. Never really obtained glory because they were indebted to investors, they married indian women. Vasco Balboa - Discovered Pacific Ocean. Juan Ponce de Leon - explored Florida, died by an Indian arrow. Francisco Coronado - Arizona, New mexico, Kansas. Discovered Grand Canyon, and bison.

Francisco Pizzaro - Crushes the Incas of Peru in 1532, obtained a lot of silver (which led to inflation, bigger prices, growth of capitalism, commercial banking and spread of commerce.)
Hernan Cortes - He rescued a captured Spanish who had been enslaved by Indians, and who had learned Indian dilect, and picked upa femail Indian slave who knew both Mayan and Nahuatl so they learned about the unrest of the other tribes that did not like the Aztecs, also heard of the gold and wealth stored in Aztec empire. Moctezuma (leader of aztec) believed Hernan ws a god, and allowed them to approach his capital,and treated hospitably but after he learned for the Spaniards hunger for wealth treated with hostility and the Aztecs drove them away. But because of a smallpox epidemic, and other indian tribes helping the Spaniards won. Cortes brought crops, animals, language, law, religion, intermarried too. 10. Carribean Sea - (West Indies) Served as an offspring area for supplies, where they could plan invasions. 11. Encomienda system - Gave Indians to certain colonists for the promise to try to christanize them. Turned out to be like Slavery, treated very badly. 12. Black Legend - False concept that the conquererors merely tortured, butchered indians, stole gold, infected them, but they also grafted their culture, laws,...
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