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* The tie between Aaron Burr and Jefferson meant that Jefferson had to be elected by the house of reps. * Jefferson and his secretary kept financial policies like funding, assumption, and the Bank of the U.S. in place. * The Jeffersonian Republicans showed their hostility by trying to impeach Justice Samuel Chase. * Marbury vs. Madison established judicial review; the right of the Supreme Court to declare legislation unconstitutional. * Jefferson cut the army to 2500 men because he thought a large army was a threat to liberty and economy. * Jefferson’s deepest doubt about the Louisiana Purchase was that the purchase might be unconstitutional. * Lewis and Clark expedition demonstrated the viability of an overland American route to the Pacific. * After 1805, American shipping was severely hurt by trade restrictions imposed by both the British and French. * After the Chesapeake Affair Jefferson could have easily declared war on Britain with the enthusiastic support from both the Federalists and Republicans. (what is Chesapeake affair?) * Jefferson’s embargo badly hurt Federalist New England as well as southern and western farmers. * New Englanders overcame the effects of the embargo by trading illicitly with Canada and developing more domestic manufacturing. * The most revolutionary development in the critical election of 1800 was the peaceful transition of power form one political party to its opponent. * One federalist policy that Jefferson quickly overturned was the excise tax. * Jefferson was forced to reverse his strong opposition to substantial military forces b/c of the plunder and blackmailing of American shipping by North African states. * Although greatly weakened after Jefferson’s election, the Federalist party’s philosophy continued to have great influence through the federalist judicial rulings of John Marshall * The tern “midnight judges” refers to Federalist judges appointed by Pres. John Adams at the last moments of his administration. * The republicans failure to impeach Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase established the principle that impeachment should be used only for “high crimes and misdemeanors” and not as a political weapon. * Jefferson focused his military construction policy primarily on building several hundred small gun boats. * Embargo Act prohibited all foreign trade.

* The crucial foreign goal for many “war hawks” in the war of 1812 was the capture and annexation of Canada. * Tecumseh and the prophet created a pan Indian military alliance against white expansion and also urged Native Americans to resist white ways and revive their traditional culture. * Native American resistance east of the Mississippi river was effectively crushed in the two battles of Tippecanoe and Horseshoe Bend. CHAPTER 12

* Napoleons decision to repeal his blockage decrees in response to Macon’s Bill No. 2 demonstrated how Madison was manipulated by napoleon. * The large western delegations in Congress were very concerned about foreign policy issues such as Canada and maritime rights. * A good deal of western hostility to Britain arose b/c the war hawks believed that the British were supplying the Native Americans. * New Englanders did not want to acquire Canada at all.

* Even though the New England shippers were most affected by overseas trade they did not want to confront Britain on issues for impressment and maritime rights. * American naval forces under Perry and Macdonough thwarted British-Canadian invasion threats to Detroit and upstate New York. * Clay’s and Calhoun’s plans for an extensive system of federally funded roads and canals were blocked by Republican presidents who had constitutional objections. * The Era of Good Feelings under President Monroe was broken by the Panic of 1819 and the battle over slavery in Missouri. * B/c of its wildcat banking practices and land speculation, the west was hit...
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