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Chapters 23- 26 Study Guide
Chapter 23- Progressivism
* Progressive Legislation- the progressives were committed to changing and reforming every aspect of the state, society and economy. Significant changes enacted at the national levels included the imposition of an income tax with the Sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the Seventeenth Amendment, Prohibition with the Eighteenth Amendment, and women's suffrage through the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. * Progressive Era Amendments- Seventeenth Amendment which was the direct election of US senators. The eighteenth election which was the prohibition of alcohol consumption. And the nineteenth Amendment which gave women the right to vote. * Reforms at the State and Local Level- A way of taking government to the state level was the Direct Primary, which allowed to directly chose senators. Reform was majorly in the cities. City after city reformers reordered municipal government. Reformers turned to recent advances in business management and organization. The most progressive state was Wisconsin. * Hepburn Act- (1906) The act strengthened the rate making power of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It empowered it to fix reasonable railroad rates and broadened its jurisdiction. The Hepburn act was a major step in Roosevelt’s plan for continuous federal control over industry. * Major Characteristics of Progressivism- Fueled by middle class, Response to industrialization and Urbanization * New Freedom Movement- Woodrow Wilson’s program that emphasized little government and business competition. This program helped lower tariffs by the Underwood Tariff act that lowered them by 15 percent. To make up for the loss of revenue Wilson issued a moderated income tax. Next, Wilson focused on banking. He initiated the Federal Reserve Act , which was the most important law of his legislation. Provided the US with a sound yet flexible currency and established the first efficient banking system since Andrew Jackson. Finally, the last act that completed Wilson’s legislation was the Clayton Antitrust Act. This reflected confusion on how to discipline a growing economy without slowing it down. This act outlawed directories and prohibited unfair trade practices. In November 1914 Wilson announced the completion of his New Freedom Program. * Teddy Roosevelt- “Square Deal” A direct result of a labor strike in the coal mines in May 1902. Roosevelt was furious and was complaining of the company’s arrogance. He invited both parties to the White House to settle the dispute. They found an agreement and paid the workers more but, were advised to increase prices to offset the increase in wages. This made Roosevelt see the government as an impartial broker between powerful powers in society. During the 1904 elections Roosevelt called his actions in the strike the “Square Deal.” This made him the first president to stand for labor and first to bring both sides of a labor dispute to the white house to settle it. Also, the first president to threaten a major industry. * Ugene V. Debbs- The candidate for socialist party of Indiana. President of the American Railway Union. Conducted a successful strike in 1894 against the Great Northern Railway. Went to jail for his leading role if the Pullman Palace Car Company strike. Socialist’s party candidate for four years. * Examples of Women leaders of suffrage- Women played a major role in the social-justice movement. Some leaders included Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Catt, Lucy Stone, and many others. The most important piece of Legislation was the 19th Amendment which allowed women to vote. Chapter 24- World War 1

* History of the Panama Canal- Started with the Hay- Bunau- Varilla Treaty that granted the US control of the canal zone. The canal was completed on August 15, 1914 and costed $375 million to build. Roosevelt took great pride in the canal calling it “the most important action of all...
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