1. Farm Communities- Farming Families that worked together to accomplish goals otherwise not possible alone. (B) They had opportunities to talk about experiences together, and share news, knowledge, etc. 2. The Shakers- Largest of the communal utopian experiments, emphasized agriculture and handcrafts, l most self-sufficient. (B) Failed because they couldn’t have sex, so no future generations to carry on. 3. The Mormons- Most successful communitarian experiment, believed in Joseph Smith. (B) Kicked out of many areas before they settled in Utah, where they still are today. 4. Transcendentalism-The belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm. (B) Influenced Brook Farm and American Renaissance. 5. The American Renaissance- A literary outpouring of philosophical intensity and moral idealism, (B) created a distinctive American work and an outgrowth of European romanticism. 6. Ralph Waldo Emerson- Essayist who preached individualism and self-reliance. (B) Prime mover of the American Renaissance and pillar of the transcendental movement. 7. The California Gold Rush- Gold Rush in California started in 1848 when the first gold was found. (B) Started mass migration to California and the western coast from all parts of the world. 8. The California Agricultural Boom- Primarly wheat, the boom started to feed all the miners that came to California. (B) Also influenced migration as well as firmly linking California to the rest of the country. 9. Early Nineteenth-Century Urban Boom- Huge jump in urban population, especially in cites like New York, Baltimore and San Fransico. (B) Mostly where immagrints moved to, but large population in dense area created health issues and cities often lacked adequate taxing power to provide services for all. 10. Horace Mann- Secretary of state board education from 1837-1848, Massachusetts led the way. (B) Established a minimum school year time and formalized the training of teachers. 11. Popular Literature in Early 19th-Century America- Fiction and autobiographies competed with religious tracts as popular literature. (B) Books reflected differences in society, and part of the new leisure century. 12. The Theater in Early 19th-Century America- Theature was a major attraction that provided a social sphere in which both men and women attended. (B) Offered 27
. Anti-Catholic Sentiment in Early 19th- Century America- Catholics were seen as supporters of the pope, not the constitution, and seen as a source of American problems. (B) 28
. German Immigrants- They were accepted into society, seen as hardworkers. (B) 31.
29. Hispanics in Early 19th-Century America- Hispanics became “immigrants” even though they never really moved anywhere. (B) After they lost there land, Hispanics where looked down upon, and maintained there catholic religion. However, they stilled retained influence in areas such as California and Arizona areas. 30. The Negro Convention Movement- Among the early efforts to organize for self-defense, free blacks from 1830-1835 held conventions with delegates drawn from the city and state organizations. They believed they had to come together and support one another to overcome the white men. The Conventions also supported the abolition of slavery and pushed African-American issues.
13. Spectator Sports in Early 19th-Century America- Increasingly urban receation and sparts became more fomal commodities to b e purchased. (B) Started organization of sports leagues and and set rules that are used today. 14. Associations and Clubs in Early 19th-Century America- Clubs joined to find people similar to themselves to associate themselves with. (B) Part of the new rise in population in cities that started the clubs, but the clubs also formalized divisions. 15. The Bowery Boys and Bowery Gals- A youth culture that was seen negatively by older New Yorkers because they did non-traditional actions such as having a girlfriend around the...