1. Bureaucracy Approach
2. Human relations Approach
3. Participatory Approach
Jai Bharath Arts and Science College
THE THEORY OF MANAGEMENT
A central part of the study of organisation and management is the development of management thinking and what might be termed management theory. The application of theory brings about change in actual behaviour. Managers reading the work of leading writers on the subject might see in their ideas and conclusions a message about how they should behave. This will influence their attitudes towards management practice. The study of management theory is important for the following reasons: ■ It helps to view the interrelationships between the development of theory, behaviour in organisations and management practice. ■ An understanding of the development of management thinking helps in understanding principles underlying the process of management. ■ Knowledge of the history helps in understanding the nature of management and organisational behaviour and reasons for the attention given to main topic areas. ■ Many of the earlier ideas are of continuing importance to the manager and later ideas on management tend to incorporate earlier ideas and conclusions. ■ Management theories are interpretive and evolve in line with changes in the organisational environment. DEVELOPMENTS IN MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
It is helpful, therefore, to trace major developments in management and organisational behaviour and what has led to the concentration of attention on such topics as motivation, groups, leadership, structure, and organisation development. Writing on organisation and management, in some form or another, can be traced back thousands of years. Also, Shafritz makes an interesting observation about the contribution of William Shakespeare (1564–1616): While William Shakespeare’s contribution to literature and the development of the English language have long been acknowledged and thoroughly documented, his contribution to the theory of management and administration have been all but ignored. This is a surprising oversight when you consider that many of his plays deal with issues of personnel management and organizational behaviour However, the systematic development of management thinking is viewed, generally, as dating from the end of the nineteenth century with the emergence of large industrial organisations and the ensuing problems associated with their structure and management.6 In order to help identify main trends in the development of organisational behaviour and management theory, it is usual to categorise the work of writers into various ‘approaches’, based on their views of organisations, their structure and management. Although a rather simplistic process, it does provide a framework in which to help direct study and focus attention on the progression of ideas concerned with improving organisational performance. Main approaches to organisation, structure and management
Emphasis on process, Formal structure, hierarchy of management, technical requirement and common principles of organisation No one best design of organisation Form structure, management, and success is depend upon a range of situational variation The integration of classical and human relations approach.
Importance of social technical system. The organisation within the external environment Attention to social factors at work, group, leadership, the informal organisations and behaviour of people
A framework of analysis
There are, however, many ways of categorising these various approaches. For example, Skipton attempts a classification of 11 main schools of management theory. Whatever form of categorisation is adopted, it is possible to identify a number of other approaches, or at least sub-divisions of approaches, and cross-grouping among the various approaches. The choice of a particular categorisation is...