Scientific methodology is used in the field of organizational psychology. When people are happier in their work environment a company is more successful than having unhappy and less fulfilled employees. The objective of this paper is to achieve a better understanding of what organizational psychology is. It will discuss the issues and methods involved in the recruitment process for an organizational and applicant perspective. Finally, it will describe the concept of organizational socialization and how the principles of organizational psychology can be applied to organizational socialization.
The formal meaning of organizational psychology is “the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings” (Jex, 2002, p. 2). There are two types of organizational formal and informal. Formal organizations exhibit continuity overtime and often exist longer than the founding members (Jex, 2002). When the purpose is less explicit than for a formal organization it is considered to be an informal organization (Jex, 2002). In informal organization having goals in writing or even stated is doubtful (Jex, 2002). In an informal organization if members were to move on the group would not continue to exist (Jex, 2002). When looking at the definition of organizational psychology it is important to note that first, it uses methods of scientific inquiry to study and intervene in organizations (Jex, 2002). This means that the data-based approach is used. The data used comes from survey, interviews, observation, and sometimes organizational records (Jex, 2002). Second, it is intellectually rooted in psychology which focuses on individual behavior (Jex, 2002). This means that individual behavior is the most important mediating factor (Jex, 2002). “Groups and organizations don’t behave; people do” (Jex, 2002, p. 8).
Organizational psychology is also a part of a broader field of industrial/organizational psychology also referred to as I/O psychology. The industrial side deals with recruitment, selection, classification, compensation, performance appraisal, and training (Jex & Britt, 2008). The organizational side deals with socialization, motivation, occupational stress, leadership, group performance, and organizational development (Jex & Britt, 2008). The industrial side is linked to management of human resources while the organizational side is linked to understanding and predicting behavior within the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). There is a lot involved in the field of organizational psychology from enhanced organizational effectiveness to the economic well-being of society as a whole (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Issues and Methods Involved in the Recruitment Process from an Organizational and Applicant Perspective.
There are several important steps in the recruitment and selection process. These steps include strategic planning, sourcing candidates, preliminary screening, selection interviewing, and the selection. Strategic planning is the key in making hiring decisions that work with the organizational employment goals (Mayhew, 2011). A budget, evaluating resources, and the workforce needs assessment are included in the strategy (Mayhew, 2011). For sourcing candidates recruiters use methods such as cold calling and job fairs to find qualified applicants (Mayhew, 2011). Some of the sources that are used by organizations include some of the following: advertising, employment agencies, labor unions, career fairs, walk-ins, write-ins, and employer referrals (Jex & Britt, 2008). High-level positions focus on searching for candidates who have specialized skills or professional expertise (Mayhew, 2011). Internal promotion is based on performance, achievements and succession planning (Mayhew, 2011). The preliminary screening of applicants can be done by telephone to glean essential information, such as work history and...