Applying ANOVA and Non Parametric Tests
a.What are three lessons you learned relative ANOVA and Nonparametric tests? While doing the simulation; the three lessons learned are as follows: Monitor – the situation
Measure – provide measurements, accumulate data
Improve – provide solutions for improvement.
b.As a result of using this simulation, what concepts and analytic tools will you be able to use in your workplace (i.e., how do you expect to apply what you learned)? As a result of using this simulation the writer thinks he can apply numerous concepts to the workplace. A favorite of the writer is the chi-squared test for ANOVA. The writer feels that he can make competent decision in his business model by consistently utilizing the appropriate test on particular dataset. When attempting to solve the dilemma associated with the lack of productivity in the first part of the scenario, using the information given, the writer noticed that not enough people were competent enough to complete the tasks assigned to them, and as a result, the writer the Praxidike Systems provide training to increase competency. This is a vital component of the competency issues that the writer has in his business. Training the customer service and technical support staff is a vital component of the measure of satisfaction that customers can expect to receive. c.Based on your experience, what additional information would you recommend to the key decision maker in the simulation to solve the challenge given?

In certain instances the writer would provide accept the data in the form of a Likert scale. Upon examination of the data, the writer concludes additional information from the customer would help the decision maker come to a more appropriate decision. In pursuing challenges like the ones in the simulation, it is imperative that the studies were conducted properly; an improper study can provide irrelevant data thus making all the results null and void.

...ApplyingANOVA and Nonparametric test
In the simulation, I selected the Kruskal-Wallis test which is used when it is difficult to meet all of the assumptions of ANOVA. The Kruskal-Wallis test is a nonparametric alternative to one way ANOVA. This test is used to compare three or more samples, to test the null hypothesis that the different samples in the comparison drawn from the same distribution or from distributions with the same median. Interpretation of the Kruskal-Wallis test is basically similar to that of the parametric one way ANOVA however; nonparametric tests are usually simpler to calculate. We use ANOVA and Nonparametric tests in everyday situations, we rely on statistical techniques whether to determine a baseball score or to find out why a crop is failing.
Being able to apply the concepts and analytical tools in the workplace should not be a difficult one. In the simulation, I made suggestions to review project plans and effort estimation, review testing procedures and increase channels for effective communication. I should have set up a two-way ANOVA with a schedule variance as factor A and number of defects as factor B which I then would have been able to conclude that there was a difference in the means due to a schedule variance, number of defects, and the interaction of schedule variance and number of defects. With ANOVA, you have a more...

...Niche marketing in automobile Industry
Niche marketing is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing; it is mostly used in Automobile industry. All leading brand like Mercedes, BMW, Audi, Toyota are doing niche marketing. So the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the demographics that is intended to impact. It is also a small market segment. Some of the different technology used to make such type of cars. EFI LOGIC continues to rewrite history with our great work ethic and unconventional thinking. Why follow along like a mindless lemming when current technology offers so many new routes to do incredible things every day. EFI Radius Shop Floor Data Collection automates production processes and provides complete visibility into the status of all jobs on factory floor. EFI Logics takes great pride in its proficiency on some of the most sophisticated and refined cars on the planet. EFI Logics has many tools at its disposal, one of which is Open ECU / RomRaider. OpenECU is and a simple free solution to tuning your Subaru or Mitsubishi, the services below are only for the custom tune and dyno time.Actual transactions are summarized and are available for review by factory supervisors before being updated into the Job Costing module, removing the need for data re-keying.Produced quantities can be collected automatically to orders using direct...

...Running Head: ApplyingANOVA and Nonparametric Tests Simulation
ApplyingANOVA and Nonparametric Tests Simulation
<Name>
RES 342
University of Phoenix
<Date>
<Instructor>
ApplyingANOVA and Nonparametric Tests Simulation
Nonparametric tests are used in business research when data does not fit a normal distribution, require less stringent assumptions about data, and allow for the analysis of categorical and ranked data (Plonsky, 2009). When statisticians want to compare the means of two samples, an analysis of variance, or ANOVA, is often employed. According to Choudhury (2009), there are “four basic assumptions used in ANOVA: the expected values of the errors are zero, the variances of all errors are equal to each other, the errors are independent, and they are normally distributed” (n.p.).
The ANOVA and Nonparametric Tests Simulation provided by University of Phoenix yielded three lessons. The first is that a nonparametric test is used for tests of differences between groups (independent samples). The second lesson is that the nonparametric test is used to test differences between variables (dependant samples). And the third lesson from the simulation is that the tests can be used to test the relationship between variables.
As a result of using this simulation, several concepts and analytic tools...

...irradiation (GT) and absorber coating type (aco), thus simplifying the problem to be studied. Considering three levels each, we designed a complete factorial experiment with 34 or 81 treatments. In the case of the proposed UTC, the ﬁrst three param_ eters (D, m and GT) are quantitative, while aco is qualitative, since the exact value of the total hemispherical absorptivity or solar absorptivity of the collector surface was not determined at the time of the experiment. This parameter characterizes the performance of the absorber coating via the incident irradiation and emitted infrared radiation and therefore should not be confused with the total hemispherical absorptivity of the absorber. Fig. 3 shows the various parameters identiﬁed by applying the experimental design methodology to the proposed UTC prototype described in the next section. The response parameters that allow the prediction of UTC thermal performance are outlet air temperature (Tout)
The ambient temperature (Tamb) in the laboratory is therefore likely to have a direct inﬂuence on collector performance. In our case, this temperature was 24 ± 1 °C. Referring to the results of Kutscher et al. (1993), the mass ﬂow rate range was set between 0.011 kg/m2/s and 0.040 kg/m2/s. Several preliminary test measurements were carried out to determine the range of variation of the incident irradiation intensity (GT), which was constrained by the intensity of the radiative heat source and the need for...

...Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA)
Dr. H. Johnson
ANOVA
• Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a powerful hypothesis
testing procedure that extends the capability of t-tests
beyond just two samples.
• Many types of ANOVAs, today we will learn about a oneway independent-measures ANOVA
• Later we’ll learn one-way repeated-measures ANOVA .
• We’ll also learn two-factor ANOVA after that.
• TheseANOVAs are by no means all of them! There are a
LOT more types!
One-Way ANOVA
• The independent measures ANOVA is used in the same types of
situations that the independent measures t-test had been used,
except that the ANOVA allows for the comparison of more than
just two groups.
• Before the advent of the computer, if someone had three
groups in an experiment, they would often use a series of t-tests
to compare all possible combinations of means.
• If you had three samples to compare then, using t-tests, we
would have to do M1 vs. M2, M1 vs. M3, and M2 vs. M3
• Each time we do a t-test, the type I error rate is equal to a.
• The experiment-wise error rate (a) is held at .05 in an ANOVA.
One-Way ANOVA
Preliminary Example
Pretend you wanted to know the effects of different temperatures on
the ability to learn. You assigned n = 5 subjects to each of three
treatment conditions. Each...

...Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi
MSc CR 2013-15
Outline of the session
• Need for Analysis of Variance
• Concept behind one way ANOVA
• Example
• Non-parametric alternative
When dependent variable is continuous
Type of
Dependent
variable
Type of
Independent
variable
Number
of
Groups
Continuous
Categorical
More
than
two
Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign
rank)
Paired t – test
Not normal
Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign
rank)
Independent z or t – test
Not normal
Non-parametric (Wilcoxon rank
sum or Mann-Whitney U )
Not normal
Unrelated or
independent
Not normal
Normal
Two
z or one sample t – test
Normal
Related
Choice of Significance test
Normal
NA
Distribution of
dependent
variable
Normal
One
Related/
Dependent
One way ANOVA/linear
regression
Non-parametric (Kruskal Wallis)
Normal
Repeated ANOVA
Not normal
Non-parametric (Friedmans test)
Unrelated
Related
Background
• When you have more than two groups to compare,
you can apply t-test multiple times
• But this is not done, why???
• Probability of type I error increases
• This increases as the number of comparison
increases
• Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is one way of dealing
with this problem which tests for overall significance
One way ANOVA
• Used to compare the...

...Iqra University, Main Campus
Course: Statistical Inferences Faculty: Iftikhar Mubbashir
Date: December 5, 2013
Fall 2013
Statistics-Walpole Chapter-12
One way Classification
•
•
•
•
•
•
Random samples of size n are selected from each of k populations.
The k populations are independent and normally distributed with means µ 1 , µ 2 ,K , µ k and common
variance σ 2 .
We wish to derive appropriate methods for testing the hypothesis:
H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 = K = µ k Against, H 0 : at least two are unequal .
Let
x ij := The j th observation from the i th population.
•
Ti := The total of all observations in the sample from the i th population.
•
•
x i := The mean of all observations in the sample from the i th population.
T .. := The total of all nk observations.
Total
1
x 11
x 12
M
x 1n
T1
2
x 21
x 22
M
x 2n
T2
x1
xi
K
K
K
K
K
K
Population
i
x i1
x i2
M
x in
Ti
xi
K
K
K
K
K
K
k
x k1
x k2
M
x kn
Tk
T ..
x ..
xk
Sum of Squares Computational Formulas for equal sample sizes:
•
k
n
2
TSS = ∑∑ x ij −
i =1 j =1
k
T..2
nk
•
•
∑T
2
i
T..2
−
CSS =
n
nk
TSS = CSS + ESS
i =1
Analysis of Variance for the One‐Way Classification for equal samples ...

...with the ability to learn, learning could be more difficult later unless if there is little or no exposure to the suitable learning environment from a young age. Piaget further suggests that learning must wait until students are ready. Vygotsky argued, “Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organised, specifically human psychological function, In other words, social learning tends to precede development” (SS). I interpret this statement mean that Vygotsky was of the view that education is an individual process and everyone learns at their own rate, when they are ready to learn, regardless of age.
3.1 Analyse ways in which minimum core elements can be demonstrated in applying theories and principles for planning and enabling inclusive learning and teaching
The minimum core elements are considered as one of the basic skills and knowledge required in being able to deliver effective lessons as a Teacher irrespective of the area of specialism. Possessing the knowledge, understanding and personal skills in English, Numeracy and ICT provides us with the platform to be able show and demonstrate theories and principles to facilitate their learning. “Improving these skills will enable you to effectively fulfil your role as a professional teacher, it’s about being able to develop these skills in your students” (Ann Gravels). For some Teachers it may be necessary to attend classes to get their core...