Applied Linguistics

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CONTINUE: 11-03-2013
Key concepts in learning:
* Subject
* Learner
* Teacher
* Context
FORMAL STRUCTURE| V/S| COMMUNICATIVE STRUCTURE|
Morphemes, sentences, rules| | Language is not possible without interaction.Language is meaningful.| Saussure: Parole, Langue| | Hymes: Linguistic competence context (what, whom, when)| Form| | Looks for the function of the language instead of the form| Alternative view: Problem PosingCritical systemIt gives real problems to childrenPermanent dialogue|

Learner:
* We see learning in different ways (Behavior –habit formation-; Innatism –response to behaviorism- ). “If we learn through habits, what about children? * Chomsky’s LAD theory:
* Universal Grammar
* We’re programmed to learn at least one language! Interactionism
* Snow: Interaction is a vital factor, not LAD
* Evidence: Accommodation of Language:
* Language is modified by the kind of subject you’re talking to. * Modifying the way we’re using a language.
* When we talk to children, we do it in a different way. * Subconscious act
* Between Children and caretakers
* Between Natives and non-natives
* The idea is to use a comprehensible input (Krashen)
* The only way to learn English is to modify the way we speak – comprehensible input * Communication as a goal
* Focus is on problem solving or accomplishing tasks

Key concepts (cont.)
Intersecting angles:
* Teaching methods and language assessment (Common European Framework of Reference) * Different Benchmarks for competence
* International exams and certifications
* Relationship between language and teaching
* Teaching materials informed by linguistic corpora
* British national corpus
* Language and language
* Learner’s age
* Kids and young people
* Critical period
* Content based language teaching – more flexible * Older people
* It is more complicated to acquire a language when you’re getting old * Different focus of instruction, different reasons e.g. occupational, academic, etc. * You can teach different things in a certain age * Context

* Physical locale (classroom or outside?)
* Immersion programmes
* Teachers are putted into a context to teach to the target required * Problems: fluent, but no accurate
* Political pressures in some parts of the world e.g. Iraq, Japan, * Multilingualism in American classrooms – is not a priority right now * National language policies

* What does it mean to learn a language? Money? Fun? * Tajikistan’s case: change from Russian to English * Future trajectory
* Learn other subjects in an L2? How?
* Is it possible that Chile would be a bilingual country? * Teaching in a language target
* Endangered languages
* People stop using a certain language
* Reflection of a certain culture
* “The end of a language is also the end of a culture” * Linguistics Imperialism
* We’re acquiring the English/American culture – English language is fixed by the culture: e.g. African English * English as a Lingua Franca
* Universal language
* Clusters: issues as non-native speakers – in fact, beach, special * Native speakers vs Non-native speakers “norms” * Technology
* Computer-mediated contact with other languages and cultures * Internet-delivered language instruction
* Use of corpora to access to the information

An introduction to Applied Linguistics
* Language as a powerful tool
* It gives access to information
* Convincing (ads,...
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