APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION
Application of motivation refers to linking of management theories to real life situations and bringing them into practice for its one thing to be able to regurgitate motivation theories. It's often another to see how, as a manager you could use them. A number of motivation techniques and programs that have gained varying degrees of acceptance in practice. The following are a few of them:-
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVEMANAGEMENT BY
Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, Verifiable, and measurable. It's not a new idea. In fact, it was originally proposed 50 years ago as a means of using goals to motivate people rather than to control them. Today, no introduction to basic management concepts would be complete without a discussion of MBO. MBO's appeal undoubtedly lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. MBO operationalizes the concept of objectives by devising a process by which objectives cascade down through the organization. The organization's overall objectives are translated into specific objectives for each succeeding level (that is, divisional, departmental, individual) in the organization. But because lower unit managers jointly participate in setting their own goals, MBO works from the "bottom up" as well as from the "top down". The result is a hierarchy that links objectives at one level to those at the next level. And for the individual employee, MBO provides specific personal performance objectives. There are four ingredients common to MBO programs. These are * Goal specificity
* Participative decision making
* Explicit time period
* Performance feedback
1. GOAL SPECIFICITY - The objectives in MBO should be concise statements of expected accomplishments. It's not adequate, for example, to merely state a desire to cut costs, improve service, or increase quality. Such desires have to be converted into tangible objectives that can be measured and evaluated. 2. PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING - The objectives in MBO are not unilaterally set by the boss and then assigned to employees. MBO replaces imposed goals with participatively determined goals. The manager and employee jointly choose the goals and agree on how they will be measured. 3. EXPLICIT TIME PERIOD - Each objective has a specific time period in which it is to be completed. Typically the time period is three months, six months, or a year. So managers and employees have specific objectives and stipulated time periods in which to accomplish them. 4. PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK - The final ingredient in an MBO program is feedback on performance. MBO seeks to give continuous feedback on progress toward goals. Ideally, this is accomplished by giving on-going feedback to individuals so they can monitor and correct their own actions. This is supplemented by periodic managerial evaluations, when progress is reviewed.
MBO in Practice
How widely used is MBO? Reviews of studies that have sought to answer this question suggest that it's a popular technique. You'll find MBO programs in many business, health-care, educational, government, and non-profit organizations. MBO's popularity should not be construed to mean that it always works. There are a number of documented cases in which MBO has been implemented but failed to meet management's expectations. A close look at these cases, however, indicates that the problems rarely lie with MBO's basic components. Rather, the culprits tend to be factors such as unrealistic expectations regarding results, lack of commitment by top management, and an inability or unwillingness by management to allocate rewards based on goal accomplishment. Failures can also arise out of cultural incompatibilities.
EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS
Employee recognition programs...
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