Application of Clinical Psychology
Patricia Davis, Kimberly Jewell, Jeffrey Kelley, Demetria Mary Mays Peppers PSY/480
July 23, 2012
Dr. Christa Banton
Introduction ~ Deme
Science with all its marvels and wonders continues to press forward making extraordinary breakthroughs. Psychology plays a key role in many of sciences steps forward, each branch of psychology focusing on a specific techniques and theories. In the document the center of attention is surrounding the application of clinical psychology, this branch of psychology is unique as it all realms of an individual’s issue. Specifically speaking, anxiety is the psychological disorder that is under review through the processes of a clinical psychologist, thus concentrating on the biological, psychological and social factors of the disorder. Discussion of what routes of treatment is best for this particular disorder, what outside sources (friends, family , and co-workers) might be involved in the treatment plan, and how would this plan be presented to individual. All of these explorations and others will be answered as we journey into the application of a clinical psychologist such as the case of Little Albert. Brief Overview of Little Albert ~ Patricia
The case of little Albert was an experiment that was conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson who carried one of the most influential psychology studies out in 1920, which is also known as the Father of Behaviorism. The Little Albert experiment was also conducted by a graduate student Rosalie Rayner, who accompanied John B. Watson during the demonstration, which took place around Little Albert ninth month of growth. During the case of Little Albert, Watson, and Rayner often expose the child to several series of various stimuli to see the reaction of the child. In the experiment, Watson and Rayner would bring out different objects toward Albert to see if he would have any anxiety toward a white rat (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009). Although, Watson, and Rayner were both interested in the study of Little Albert, they both were reward a grant to study reflexes, and instinct in infants. During Watson’s experiment, he exposed Little Albert to white lab rat to see if the child would react to the lab rat in fear. The next time Albert was exposed to the rat, Watson made distressing loud noise while hitting a steal bar with a hammer creating how emotional response could be conditioned or learned. At first response the child seem to become frighten by the loud noise, however, at second response the child began to cry after repeatedly hearing the loud noise (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009). While the experiment took place, Little Albert was soon introduced to a white rat combine with a series of other stimuli, which included a rabbit, burning news paper, and a mask. During this process of experimentation, every time Little Albert was shown the white rat pairing with the loud noise, he would begin to cry. The instant the rat was shown to Albert the second or third time, he would began to cry at the sight of the rat alone. Watson wanted to determine if Little Albert would become fearful as a loud sound of the hammer would create a distressing noise near the child that present how classical conditioning can be use to condition, and emotional response (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009). However, Albert fear of the white rat was not the only conditioning, but he was introduce to a wide variety of similar objects as well, such as a white rabbit, Raynor’s furry white coat, and a mask that symbolize Santa’s white beard. Watson had conditioned a fear response in Little Albert during this process to see if the same response of fear would transfer to other objects. During his experiment, Watson discover that Little Albert f ear did in fact extend to other furry animals, and objects, however, before Watson could remove any of signs of phobia, Albert’s mother remove him from the hospital (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver,...
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