DATE SUBMITTED: April 23, 2013
APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHT VARIATION IN SAMPLES

P.C.Nicolas
Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman Date Performed: April 19, 2013
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I. Results and Discussions
This experiment was aimed so that the students would be able to use the analytical balance properly, to be able to gain an understanding of some statistical concepts and be able to use these concepts in analytical chemistry. Analytical Chemistry focuses on the quantitative properties of matter specifically the inorganic compounds. Moreover, this experiment granted the students an overview of the subject.

In the experiment, ten 25c coin samples were weighed using the analytical balance. Forceps were used to handle the coins to ensure that the coin samples will not be tampered with fingerprints that may add to the weight of the samples. The recorded data were divided into two data sets. One data set contains the first six recorded data while the other contains all the 10 recorded values. The recorded data was shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Weight of the Samples
Sample Number| Weight in g|
1| 3.6430|
2| 3.6105|
3| 3.5957|
4| 3.6124|
5| 3.5555|
6| 3.5820|
7| 3.6020|
8| 3.6357|
9| 3.5839|
10| 3.5924|
For each data set, Q-test was used for the highest and lowest value. At 95% confidence level, it was found out that the extreme values for the two data sets are accepted and not an outlier. Calculations for the Q-test can be found in the attached data sheet. Q-test is used for handling rejection of data especially when dealing with small scale observations.

Data recorded in Table 1 were subjected to Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Precision, and confidence limit aside from the Q-test.
Measures of Central tendency helps researchers...

...DATE PERFORMED: NOVEMBER 22, 2011
APPLICATION OF STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHTVARIATION IN SAMPLES
APRIL JOY H. GARETE DEPARTMENT OF MINING, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES RECEIVED NOVEMBER 29, 2011
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Weight ofSamplesSample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Data Set 1: Sample No. 1-6 Data Set 2: Sample no. 1-10 B. Q-Test Data Set 1 2 C. Reported Values Parameter X S RSD R RR CL Data Set 1 3.6320 + 0.0005 0.092447 25.453 0.2721 + 0.0003 74.92 + 0.08 3.63 + 0.14 Data Set 2 3.6055 + 0.0006 0.027485 7.6231 0.0902 + 0.0003 25.02 + 0.08 3.61 + 0.03 Suspect Values H: 3.8094 L: 3.5373 H: 3.8094 L: 3.5373 Qtab 0.740 0.740 0.568 0.568 Qexp 0.66850 0.20397 0.66850 0.20397 Conclusion Accepted Accepted Rejected Accepted Weight, g 3.5928 + 0.0002 3.6083 + 0.0002 3.6210 + 0.0002 3.5373 + 0.0002 3.6234 + 0.0002 3.8094 + 0.0002 3.6275 + 0.0002 3.6136 + 0.0002 3.6139 + 0.0002 3.6120 + 0.0002
D. Sample Calculations Q-test
where Q is the ratio compared to Qtab, xq is the suspected value, xn is the value closest to the suspected and w is the range of the entire set. H: Qexp = |3.8094 – 3.6275| = 0.66850 (0.27210) L: Qexp = |3.5373 – 3.5928| = 0.20397...

...APPLICATION OF STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHTVARIATION IN SAMPLES
D. E. BIACORA
DEPARTMENT OF MINING, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: 19 November 2013
INTRODUCTION
Analytical chemistry involves the separation, identification anddetermination of amounts of components in a particular sample. Accuracy and precision are important in data acquisition to be able to acquire substantial results in the end of the experiment. To attain such goal, replication of measurements must be performed. The reliability of the measurements may then be evaluated through various statistical parameters [1].
Among the acquired data in the course of the experiment, it is possible that not all data are considered valid. Invalid data are called outliers, values that significantly differ among others in the set of data [2]. Before doing the statistical calculations, suspect values, which are the lowest and highest data obtained are evaluated in terms of its acceptability through the Q-test. It makes use of the tabulated critical values for different confidence levels in which the resultant value for the said test should not exceed, otherwise the datum is considered invalid and cannot be included...

...Application of StatisticalConcepts in the Determination of WeightVariation in Samples
del Castillo, Kevin S.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home Economics
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Date: 26 November 2012
____________________________________________________________________________________
Results and Discussion
Statistics is one of the important tools used in chemistry. It defines the measurements gathered, and characterizes the relationship of each value to each other. The experiment aimed to use statisticalconcepts in evaluating the gathered data, find the inevitable errors, and qualify the different parameters of the said data set. Ten one-peso coins were weighed carefully on the analytical balance, separated in to two data sets (see Appendix A, Table 2). It is important to use forceps to prevent undesired fingerprints, which can add undesired weight, while handling the coins. The Ohaus Analytical Plus Series analytical balances were used for the weight analysis. An analytical balance is a weighing tool with a capacity that ranges from 1 g to a few kg with a precision of at least 1 part in 105 at maximum capacity.(2) The statistical parameters of both sets can be found on Table 1.
Table 1 Calculated Values of Several...

...Application of StatisticalConcepts In The Determination Of WeightVariation In Samples
Margabacus
Insti of Chemy, Univ of the Phili, Dili, QC
-------------------------------------------------
Dept of MolBio and Biotech, CS, Univ of the Phili, Dili, QC
ABSTRACT
-------------------------------------------------
The objectives of the experiment are to use the analytical balance correctly, to gain an understanding of some concepts of statistical chemistry, and to apply statisticalconcepts in analytical chemistry. The experiment preceded by ten teams weighing ten 25-centavo coins using an analytical balance, weighing by difference. After doing the calculations to analyze the data, some of the values were rejected from their data sets. Overall, the results of the calculations denote that the data values gathered have high precision since the pooled standard deviation is low. The experiment shows that in order to analyze data properly and objectively, one must apply statisticalconcepts.
-------------------------------------------------
Introduction
All measurements are subjected to random errors. Sometimes, data can be either accepted or rejected before they are further analyzed. This is done by calculating the Q-test ( [1]). Computing for the confidence limit ( [2]) in 95% confidence...

...APPLICATION OF STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHTVARIATION IN SAMPLES
M.C. MENDOZA1
1NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101, PHILIPPINES
DATE SUBMITTED: 21 NOVEMBER 2013
DATE PERFORMED: 14 NOVEMBER 2013
ABSTRACT
Accuracy and precision are criticalconcepts to the performance of a laboratory to produce sound analytical results (Singer, 2001). LOLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The analytical balance was used in this experiment to determine the weight of each 25 centavo coin. This was done by performing the weighing by difference method. Results were then recorded in table 1.
Table 1 below shows the weight of the ten samples of coins. The samples were then divided into two data sets; samples 1-6 (data set 1) and samples 1-10 (data set 2).
Table 1.Weight of 25 centavo coin samplesSample No.
Weight, g
1
3.5800
Data Set 2
Data Set 1
2
3.6073
3
3.5904
4
3.6140
5
3.5940
6
3.6265
7
3.6016
8
3.7603
9
3.5974
10
3.5978
Since this experiment aims to apply some statistical...

...Experiment 1: APPLICATION OF STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHTVARIATION IN SAMPLES
LEE, Hyun Sik
Chem 26.1 WFV/WFQR1
-------------------------------------------------
Nov. 23, 2012
A skillful researcher aims to end his study with a precise and accurate result. Precision refers to the closeness of the values when some quantity is measured several times; while accuracy refers to the closeness of the values to the true value. The tool he utilizes to prevent errors in precision and accuracy is called statistics. In order to become familiar to this tactic, the experiment aims to help the researchers become used to the concepts of statistical analysis by accurately measuring the weights of ten (10) Philippine 25-centavo coins using the analytical balance, via the “weighing by difference” method. Then, the obtained data divided into two groups and are manipulated to give statistical significance, by performing the Dixon’s Q-test, and solving for the mean, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, range, relative range, and confidence limit—all at 95% confidence level. Finally, the results are analyzed between the two data sets in order to determine the reliability and use of each statistical function.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This simple experiment only involved the weighing of...

...APPLICATION FOR STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE WEIGHTVARIATION OF SAMPLES
JOSE ROMUALDO D. VINARAO
Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman Quezon City
Date Performed: July 4, 2013
Date Submitted: July 10, 2013
-------------------------------------------------
METHODOLOGY
In a gravimetric analysis, the determination is carried out by converting the analyte into an insoluble substance which is isolated and weighed1. In this experiment we used precipitation gravimetry from which the analyte is separated from a solution of the sample as a precipitate and is converted to a compound of known composition that can be weighed2.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data Sheet 2 |
Coins | Mass |
1 | 3.5688 |
2 | 3.5808 |
3 | 3.6041 |
4 | 3.6083 |
5 | 3.6460 |
6 | 3.6516 |
Total | 21.6596 |
Mean | 3.6099 |
Table 1 Table 2
Data Sheet 1 |
Coins | Mass |
1 | 3.5340 |
2 | 3.5650 |
3 | 3.5689 |
4 | 3.5807 |
5 | 3.5886 |
6 | 3.5917 |
7 | 3.6042 |
8 | 3.6082 |
9 | 3.6460 |
10 | 3.6516 |
Total | 35.9389 |
Mean | 3.59389 |
Theoretical | 3.6000 |
The ten 25 centavo coins sample were chosen due to availability at the moment of experiment. The weight of the coins were taken using “weighing by difference method” to have a faster and more stable result of mass. We thought...

...APPLICATION OF STATISTICALCONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION OF WEIGHTVARIATION IN SAMPLES
DEPARTMENT OF MINING, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
date performed: NOVEMBER 19, 2013
instructor’s name: KAYE CARILLO
results and discussion
In the experiment, ten one-peso coins are used as samples. The 10 samples have the same year of coinage to lessen the error. These are cleansed beforehand. Each weight is measured using the analytical balance and weighed by difference. The analytical balance has the tolerance of ±0.0002 grams. Two Data Sets are set up. All values are recorded in Table 1.
Table 1. Recorded WeightsSAMPLEWEIGHTS
1
5.3592
DATA SET 2
DATA SET 1
2
5.3651
3
5.3494
4
5.3562
5
5.3832
6
5.374
7
5.2829
8
2.2849
9
5.3393
10
5.3194
The calculated values for the mean standard deviation, relative standard deviation, the range, relative range and confidence limits are listed on Table 2.
Table 2. Reported Values
PARAMETERS
DATA SET 1
DATA SET 2
X
5.3645 ± 0.0005
5.3414 ± 0.0006
S
0.01237
0.03508
RSD
2.3059
6.5676
R
0.0338 ± 0.0003
0.1003 ± 0.0003
RR
6.30 ± 0.056
18.8 ± 0.056...

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