Table of Contents
• Introduction to organic manure
• Status of organic farming in Nepal
• Development of the organic agricultural sector
• Example of organic farming
• Major constraints
Introduction to organic manure
Organic manure refers to the manures made from cattle dung, excreta of other animals, rural and urban composts, other animal wastes, and crop residues and last but not the least green manures. Organic manure is time tested materials for improving the fertility and productivity of soils. These are ready to use live formulates of several beneficial microorganisms which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity in particular. As compared to chemical fertilizers, our organic manure/fertilizers are very useful and effective in terms of sustainability of agriculture. The major advantages of organic manure/fertilizers include:
• Increased crop yield
• Replaces chemical nitrogen and phosphorus
• Activate the soil biologically
• Stimulate plant growth
• Restore natural soil fertility
• Provide protection against drought and some soil borne diseases
There are mainly three types of organic manure. They are:
1. Farm yard manure:
These are commonly used organic manure that is readily available and includes cattle dung as well as excreta of other animals. It is an important agricultural by-product. Its major advantages are:
a. Ability to improve the soil, tilth and aeration.
b. Increases the water holding capacity of soil.
c. Stimulate activity of micro-organisms.
Composting is a process of reducing vegetable and animal waste to a quickly utilizable condition for improving and maintaining soil fertility. These are produced through the action of microorganisms on wastes. Wastes may be leaves, roots and stubbles, crop residues, straw, hedge clippings, weeds, water hyacinth, saw dust, kitchen wastes and human habitation wastes.
3. Green manuring:
Green manure refers to fresh matter added to the soil largely for supplying the nutrient contained in the bio-mass. Leguminous plants are largely used as green manure due to their symbiotic N fixing capacity. Some non-leguminous plants are also used due to local availability, drought tolerance, quick growth and adaptation to adverse conditions. Any plant cannot be used as a green manure in practical farming.
Status of organic farming in Nepal
Over 80% of the population is involved in agriculture which constitutes 41% of GDP. Government efforts to...