APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES – CANCER.
Nanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation, and application of materials, devices, and systems at the nanometer scale (One meter consists of 1 billion nanometers). It is becoming increasingly important in fields like engineering, agriculture, construction, microelectronics and health care to mention a few. The application of nanotechnology in the field of health care has come under great attention in recent times. There are many treatments today that take a lot of time and are also very expensive. Using nanotechnology, quicker and much cheaper treatments can be developed. By performing further research on this technology, cures can be found for diseases that have no cure today. We could make surgical instruments of such precision and deftness that they could operate on the cells and even molecules from which we are made - something well beyond today's medical technology. Therefore nanotechnology can help save the lives of many people. (Mohd & Jeffery, 2007). The specific purpose of this report is to explain the application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer in the field of medicine. Applications such as drug delivery system, tissue reconstruction and disease diagnosis and treatment shall be discussed. This report will be of particular interest and help to researchers in the genetic engineering and biotechnology department of the federal university of technology Minna, and other research institutions. 1.1 Problem Statement
The specific purpose of this report is to delve into the application of nanotechnology to diagnose and treat diseases in the field of medicine using our own indigenous technology. Applications such as drug delivery system, tissue reconstruction and disease diagnosis and treatment shall be discussed as it relates to cancer. 1.2. Justification of the Study
With the raging scourge of cancer in the world today, nanotechnology provides the field of medicine with promising hope for assistance in its diagnosis and treatment as well as improving the general quality of life. Humans have the potential to live healthier lives in the near future due to the innovations of nanotechnology. Some of these innovations include: Disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, better drug delivery system with minimal side effects and tissue reconstruction.
1.3. Objective of the Study
This research work is designed to achieve the following objectives: Design and production of nano-tech devices and equipment for the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. To develop a model that predicts the method involve in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases such as cancer. Design of nanoparticles for nano-tech applications such as tissue reconstruction. To determine the method that will best optimize the drug delivery system with minimal side effects.
1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this research work shall be limited to the application of nanotechnology in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cancer as highlighted in the problem statement of this research work. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
The word “nano” is derived from the Greek “nanos”, directly translating to English as “dwarf”. From the very literal meaning of the word, therefore, it is inferred that the science is operated on a miniature scale. When working at a nanoscale, the prefix “nano” is used as an SI unit to denote any value multiplied by 10-9, meaning that a nanosecond is roughly a billionth of a second and a nanometre equates to a billionth of a metre. Ten hydrogen atoms lined up side by side would equate to a length of 1nm; in fact, most atoms are a miniscule 0.1-0.2nm wide. Due to the fact that work on a cellular level is done primarily at a...