Bacterial proteinases are still the most important detergent enzymes. Lipases decompose fats into more water-soluble compounds. Amylases are used in detergents to remove starch based stains.
2. Starch hydrolysis and fructose production
The use of starch degrading enzymes was the first large scale application of microbial enzymes in food industry. Mainly two enzymes carry out conversion of starch to glucose: alpha-amylase and fungal enzymes. Fructose produced from sucrose as a starting material. Sucrose is split by invertase into glucose and fructose, fructose separated and crystallized.
Enzymes have many applications in drink industry. Lactase splits milk-sugar lactose into glucose and galactose. This process is used for milk products that are consumed by lactose intolerant consumers. Addition of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase improve the liberation of the juice from pulp. Similarly enzymes are widely used in wine production.
The use of enzymes in textile industry is one of the most rapidly growing fields in industrial enzymology. The enzymes used in the textile field are amylases, catalase, and lactases which are used to remove the starch, degrade excess hydrogen peroxide, bleach textiles and degrade lignin.
5. Animal feed
Addition of xylanase to wheat-based broiler feed has increased the available metabolizable energy 7-10% in various studies. Enzyme addition reduces viscosity, which increases absorption of nutrients, liberates nutrients either by hydrolysis of non-degradable fibers or by liberating nutrients blocked by these fibers, and reduces the amount of faeces.
Alpha-amylases have been most widely studied in connection with improved bread quality and increased shelf life. Use of xylanases decreases the water absorption and thus reduces the amount of added water needed in baking. This leads to more stable dough. Proteinases can be...