Course/ code: Biology, Grade 11/ SBI 3U
This paper will examine apple trees by categorizing them through the following classifications, the vascular system, structures, its responses, practicality, and ecological importance which will be presented in a topical manner. Classification
The classification of plants is the understanding of the relationships and similarities between plants. It is important to identify unknown species, to group or assign names to organisms and to provide common references for those already identified (Bergman, Carol & Senn, 1988). The apple tree belongs to the Plantae kingdom meaning it is a plant (Bingaman, 1999) and the Tracheophyta subkingdom or phylum, indicates that over the years it “developed an interior plumping system and rigid supporting tissues that allowed them to grow much bigger” (“Phylum tracheophyta”, 1996). All these plants that have conducting tubes are vascular. Apple trees are in the Magnoliopsida class, meaning they are flowering plants (Mishra, 2010), and are in the Rosales order, so their flowers “are bisexual, usually have four or five petals and are flat or cup-shaped with fleshy fruits” (Durham, 2012). They are members of the rose family also known as Rosaceae family (“Rosaceae”, 2011), and of the genus Malus (Bingaman, 1999). Giving the apple tree the scientific name Malus domestica (Girard, 1999). Originating in Asia, there are approximately seven thousand-five hundred varieties of apples known around the world (Smith, 1999), but the most popular are based on how many boxes are produced each year, these include red delicious, golden delicious, granny smith, Rome, Fuji, Macintosh, Gala, Jonathan, Idared and Empire apples (Girard, 1999). These plants are angiosperms with seeds, giving them the ability to have flowers.” Unlike gymnosperms, whose seeds are exposed to weather, animals and people, angiosperms have their seeds surrounded by flowers, which can offer incredible protection. Many of these plants have an inner layer that surrounds the seed, storing food and protecting it from harm, and an outer layer that protects the seeds from the elements or animal attacks” (Wiess, 2003). Angiosperms can have two kinds of seeds, monocots or dicots. “Dicots include apple trees, cherry trees, roses, sunflowers and cacti. They have flowers with four or five petals and complex leaves with veins. The dicot fruit trees have two packages of cotyledons, by which they provide food for people and animals as well” (Wiess, 2003). The typical apple trees are deciduous with gray, purple or brown bark, with a broad often densely twiggy crown, with white flowers. These flowers have pink undersides while blooming which from eventually a fruit will form known as the apple (Girard, 1999). The Malus trees range from four to thirty feet in height and fifteen feet in width. An apple is at least one inch in diameter varying shades of red, green or yellow (Harmon, 2004). The tree requires rich soil, moderate watering, good drainage and full sunlight to ensure a healthy growth (Hargitt , n.d). Vascular system
Malus domesticas are vascular plants, meaning that they have tubes that carry fluids, much like veins and arteries found in the human circulatory system. In plants, these tubes are called xylem and phloem and each has a specific function. The xylem carries water and chemicals, including nutrients, and the phloem carries sugar and other chemicals back through the plant and distribute it as needed. The sugary substance is the result of photosynthesis and is used to feed the plant (Leschmann, 2005). However the structure of this system differs from the circulatory system in several ways, mainly because instead of the path starting with the heart, the vascular path starts off with the vascular bundles located in the roots. It contains the xylem, phloem and protective cells. The two tubes are very different ,xylem is made up of dead cells forming...