Brain Response of Behavior
Note: Parts II and III follow below, complete all three.
Run Multimedias 2.3 and 2.4
o Go to the Web site www.prenhall.com/morris.
o Click text: Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.)
o Click “2” on the select a chapter tool bar.
o Click Live!Psych on the left hand menu.
o Select 2.3 and 2.4.
Write a 350- to 700-word response to the following: Explain the communication process of neurons in the brain. List some common neurotransmitters and describe their effect on behavior.
What are neurons? A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are responsible for the transmitting of communication within the brain and other areas of the nervous system. Dendrites are the treelike extensions of a neuron. Most neurons have multiple dendrites, which are short and typically highly branched. Dendrites are specialized for receiving information and form synaptic contacts with the terminals of other nerve cells to allow nerve impulses to be transmitted. . The axon is a long fiber of a nerve cell (a neuron) that acts somewhat like a fiber-optic cable carrying outgoing (efferent) messages. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon endings of motor neurons, where they stimulate the muscle fibers. And they and their close relatives are produced by some glands such as the pituitary and the adrenal glands. All of these parts of the brain carry information throughout the entire human body. The process starts when an electrical impulse travels down the cell body to the axon it then crosses a gap called the synapse. The synapse is the site where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one cell to another cell. The axons contain sacs that hold neurotransmitters. When the brain sends an electrical impulse it stimulates the sacs in the axons causing them to be released into the synapse. These neurotransmitters then attach to the dendrites that spark an electrical impulse in the cell body. This then causes the brain to convert the message from the neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters can be excitatory, which means that they help with the communication of a nerve impulse. Neurotransmitters can also be inhibitory and hinder the communication of a nerve impulse. Common neurotransmitters are serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin and acetylcholine. Their actions vary greatly depending on what structure but low serotonin production is usually associated with depression, low dopamine can cause problems with cognition memory, such as, Parkinson’s disease. Noradrenalin is associated with fight or flight response and acetylcholine is associated with flexibility and excitability. Neurotransmitters play a vital role in the operation of a human’s mind and body.
Refer to Ch. 2 (pp. 58-78) In Psychology: An Introduction.
Write a 350- to 700-word response identifying the major regions of the brain and what functions of behavior the systems of each region control.
The brain is the organ of behavior. The human brain consists of several large regions. Each region is responsible for some of the activities that are necessary for life. These regions are as followed; brainstem, cerebellum, limbic system, diencephalon, and cerebral cortex. The brainstem is the part of the brain that connects the brain and spinal cord. This part of the brain is involved in coordinating many basic functions as heart rate, breathing, eating, and sleeping. The brainstem is located in an area near bony protrusions making it vulnerable to damage during trauma. The cerebellum coordinates the brain’s instructions for skilled repetitive movements and for maintaining balance and posture. Next, is the limbic system, the limbic system is involved in regulating emotions and motivations. Parts of the...