(1) Write down the job analysis, job description and job specification of a storekeeper’s job. (2) What specific standards and specification would you include in the job description and job specification. (3) How would you go about in developing a standard job description and specification? (4) Which are the staff members from whom you would collect useful information and requirements of this job?
Case Example: British Airways
In 1982 Margaret Thatcher’s government in Great Britain decided to convert British Airways (BA) from government ownership to private ownership. BA had regularly required large subsidies from the government (almost $900 million in 1982), subsidies that the government felt it could not provide. Even more important, the Conservative government was ideologically opposed to the government’s ownership of businesses—a matter they regarded as the appropriate province of private enterprise. The growing deregulation of international air traffic was another important environmental change. Air fares were no longer fixed, and the resulting price wars placed BA at even greater risk of financial losses. In order to be able to “privatize”—that is, sell BA shares on the London and New York Stock Exchanges—it was necessary to make BA profitable. The pressures to change thus exerted on BA by the external environment were broad and intense. And the internal organizational changes, driven by these external pressures, have been massive and widespread. They have transformed the BA culture from what BA managers described as “bureaucratic and militaristic” to one that is now described as “service-oriented and market- driven.” The success of these efforts over a five- year period (1982—1987) is clearly depicted in the data. This figure 8 reflects BA’s new mission in its new advertising slogan—”The World’s Favorite Airline.” Five years after the change effort began, BA had successfully moved from government ownership to private ownership, and both passenger and cargo revenues had dramatically increased, leading to a substantial increase in share price over the offering price, despite the market crash of October 1987. Indeed, in late 1987 BA acquired British Caledonian Airways, its chief domestic competitor. The steps through which this transformation was accomplished clearly fit Lewin’s model of the change process.
Unfreezing: In BA’s change effort, the first step in unfreezing involved a massive reduction in the worldwide BA workforce (from 59,000 to 37,000). It is interesting to note that, within a year after this staff reduction, virtually all BA performance indices had improved—more on-time departures and arrivals, fewer out-of-service aircraft, less time “on hold” for telephone reservations, fewer lost bags, and so on. The consensus view at all levels within BA was that...