b.Hills and valleys increase the flow of air in valleys
c.Higher temperatures decrease chemical reactions leading to more photochemical smog formation. d.FOC emissions from certain trees and plants can play a large role in creating photochemical smog. e.Temperature inversions can help to disperse pollutants.
36.Which of the following statements is true?
a.Temperature inversion occurs when a layer of cold air prevents warm air from rising. b.Temperature inversions exacerbate pollution problems.
c.Temperature inversions last only a few minutes to a few hours. d.Normally, cool air near earth's surface expands and rises, carrying pollutants higher into the troposphere. e.Temperature inversions help prevent air pollution
37.A temperature inversion is the result of
b.cold air drainage.
c.a lid of warm air on top of cooler, stagnant air.
d.a cold blanket of air that prevents warm air from rising.
e.mixing of cool and warm air
38.Which of the following areas would be least likely to have a temperature inversion? a.an area near the coast
b.an area in the central plains
c.a valley surrounded by mountains
d.the leeward side of a mountain range
e.None of these answers.
39.The city in the United States distinguished by having the toughest pollution control program and the greatest air pollution problem is a.New York City.
a.are expensive ways to disperse pollution.
b.cannot carry the pollutants above any local inversion layer. c.are an output approach to pollution.
d.increase pollution in upwind areas.
e.All of these answers.
41.Acid deposition is properly defined as the ____ deposition of ____ pollutants onto earth's surface. a.wet . . . secondary
b.dry . . . secondary
c.wet and dry . . . primary
d.wet and dry . . . secondary
e.dry . . . primary
42.Typical rain in the eastern United States has a pH of
43.Acid deposition is best classified as a
44.All of the following describe soils that are vulnerable to acid deposition except a.thin.
b.low in buffering ions.
c.high in hydroxyl (OH-) ions.
e.soils that have been depleted by decades of acid deposition.
45.Western and eastern Europe are the source of most of the acid deposition in a.Israel.
46.Experts rate acid rain as a
a.high-risk ecological and human health problem.
b.medium-risk ecological problem and high-risk human health problem. c.high-risk ecological and low-risk human health problem.
d.medium-risk ecological and human health problem.
e.high-risk ecological problem and no-risk human health problem.
47.In general, acid deposition has harmful effects for terrestrial ecosystems when it falls below a pH level of a.3.6.
48.Acid deposition has been linked to
a.contamination of fish with highly toxic methylmercury.
b.excessive soil nitrogen levels.
c.reduced nutrient uptake by tree roots.
d.weakening trees so they become more susceptible to other types of damage. e.All of these answers.
49.Approximately ___ % of China’s cropland suffers fromexcess acidity. a.10
50.Of the following strategies to reduce acid deposition, the least effective is probably a.removing sulfur from coal before it is burned.
b.reducing energy use.
c.switching to natural gas.
d.adding lime to neutralize the acids.
e.improving energy efficiency
Indoor Air Pollution
51.Experts rate indoor air pollution as a
a.high-risk health problem for humans.
b.medium-risk health problem for humans.
c.low-risk health problem for humans.