Apes Living in the Environment Chapter 14

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14-1 Notes
What are Mineral Resources?
* Nonrenewable Resources: a concentration of naturally occurring material in or on the earth’s crust that can be extracted and processed at an affordable cost. Non-renewable resources are mineral and energy resources such as coal, oil, gold, and copper that take a long period of time to produce. * Metallic Mineral Resources – iron, copper, aluminum

* Nonmetallic Mineral Resources – salt, gypsum, clay, sand, phosphates, water and soil. * Energy resource: coal, oil, natural gas and uranium
* Identified Resources – deposits of a nonrenewable mineral resource that have a known location, quantity and quality based on direct geological evidence and measurements * Undiscovered Resources– potential supplies of nonrenewable mineral resources that are assumed to exist on the basis of geologic knowledge and theory (specific locations, quantity and quality are not known) * Reserves – identified resources of minerals that can be extracted profitably at current prices. * Other Resources – resources that are not classified as reserves. How do Ores form from Magma?

* Hydrothermal Processes: most common way of mineral formation * A.Gaps in sea floor are formed by retreating tectonic plates * B.Water enters gaps and comes in contact with magma * C.Superheated water dissolves minerals from rock or magma * D.Metal bearing solutions cool to form hydrothermal ore deposits. * E.Black Smokers – upwelling magma solidifies. Miniature volcanoes shoot hot, black, mineral rich water through vents of solidified magma on the seafloor. Support chemosynthetic organisms. * Manganese Nodules (Pacific Ocean) – ore nodules crystallized from hot solutions arising from volcanic activity. Contain manganese, iron copper and nickel. How do Ores and other Minerals Form from Sedimentary and Weathering Processes? * Sedimentary Processes – sediments settle and form ore deposits. *...
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