Apes Chapter Questions

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APES Chapter Questions
Living in the Environment, Miller, 15th Ediction

Chapter 1: Environmental Problems, Their Causes & Sustainability

1. What is an environmentally sustainable society? Give 2 examples. 2. What is the rate of global population growth?
3. How do you calculate doubling time?
4. What is the difference between economic growth, economic development and environmentally sustainable development? 5. Define natural capital and natural capital degradation. Give examples of each. 6. Define sustainable and sustainability. Give examples of the application of these two terms. 7. Name the three major cultural changes in human society. 8. Describe the four scientific principles of sustainability.

Chapter 2: Science, Systems, Matter and Energy

1. Describe each of the steps to the scientific method.
2. Define system and surroundings. What are the components of a complex system? 3. Describe the 6 forms of energy and the uses of energy. 4. How does energy flow in a system?
5. How is matter classified?
6. What are the three Laws of Thermodynamics and how can they be applied to energy and environmental science? 7. What is a positive and negative feedback loop? Give examples of each.

Chapter 3: Ecosystems: What are they and how do they work?

1. Draw a map of each of the bio-geochemical cycles. Be sure to include any chemical reactions that occur. (Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Nitrogen, Rock, Hydrologic) 2. Describe the location and function of each of the soil horizon layers. What are the fundamental differences in each layer? Where would you find the “E” layer? 3. Name the three different sizes of soil particles and the function or use of each. 4. What is the processes of soil formation?

5. What are the major components of an ecosystem?
6. Outline the flow of energy through an ecosystem.
7. What is biomagnification and the significance of the process.

Chapter 4: Evolution and Biodiversity

1. Define biodiversity and describe it’s importance to sustainable living. 2. Compare and contrast adaptation, mutation, natural selection and evolution. 3. How does the extinction of species and formation of new species affect biodiversity? 4. How do species respond to an environmental stress?

5. How has genetic engineering affected the human population? The environment? Give three examples of each. 6. What laws and global agreements impact biodiversity?

Chapter 5: Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity

1. Describe each of the world’s major biomes and the characteristics of each. Make sure you differentiate between polar, temperate and tropical. 2. What is the major factor behind climate? Describe the process. 3. How does climate affect the different biomes?

4. How have human activities affected the biomes? Climate? 5. Which climate is most susceptible to human interference and why? 6. Copy the chart on page #107 into your notes.

Chapter 6: Aquatic Biodiversity

1. Describe the different zones of a freshwater system including flora, fauna and light penetration. 2. Describe the different zones of a saltwater system including flora, fauna and light penetration. 3. How does salinity affect a freshwater system? Saltwater? 4. Describe the different coastal communities. What impact has man made on each community? 5. What are the major laws affecting freshwater and saltwater systems?

Chapter 7: Community Ecology

1. Define the following terms and draw an energy map relating them to each other: keystone species, specialist species, indicator species, invasive species, native species 2. Describe the role of each of the species in question #1. 3. What does the term HIPPO refer to? Give examples.

4. What determines the number of species in a community?
5. Describe the diversity of a community in terms of the species richness and diversity index....
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