Apartheid

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A) Outline the main features in the background and the rise to prominence of Nelson Mandela

Rolihahla Dalibunga Mandela was born in the Transkei on July 18 1918, to Chief Gadla henry Mphakanyiswa and the third wife Nosekeni Fanny. He is the member of the Madiba clan and the royal family of the Thembu people. The birth of Mandela brought great celebration in his village as he was the first born son. The celebration involved his father slaughtering a goat and mounted the horns in the house. His father named him Rolihahla, which in Xhosa means ‘pulling the branch of a tree’ or colloquially ‘troublemaker’. Coincidently this name demonstrates his life later on the years. He was born into the Xhosa nation in which his father was a respected chief. Mandela’s father often clashed with the white authorities, where once had a disagreement with the local white authorities and was found guilty of insubordination. This lead his position to be taken away and lost his home, thus the family was forced to move to the village of Qunu. The men in charge of the Local Weseyan church saw great prominence in Mandela and suggested he to be educated. Thus, in 1925, at the age of seven, Mandela being the first of his other siblings to receive formal education, was very auspicious for him and his family as many blacks did not attend school. At the time Christian mission educated children were often named after British imperial heroes and also the teachers were unable to pronounce African names. As a result, on the first day of school, young Mandela’s teacher coincidentally gave him an english name of Nelson. In 1927, at the age of nine, Mandela’s father died of lung disease. He was placed in the care of Chief Jongintaba, the KwaZulu King as his ward, in which was always destined to lead as his advisor. In his teenage years, Mandela had consistent education where it taught him of British culture dominates traditional culture. In 1938, at the age of 21, he enrolled at Fort Hare University, the only black university in South Africa. Mandela first encountered Oliver Tambo and became involved in a sec boycott against white administration and disagreements with policies which led to an expulsion from Fort Hare. Mandela’s guardian tried to arrange a marriage for him, he defies him for his principles and runs off to Johannesburg. This is where he meets Walter Sisulu and begins correspondence to become lawyer, that gave him an opportunity by the whites to experience equality while working at the Johannesburg law firm. Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1943, wanting to radicalise the resistance movement from protest petitions to mass protest against black segregation. Following after, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Ashley Peter Mda formed the African National Congress Youth League where Program of Action was inspired, advocated weapons, of boycott, strike, civil disobedience and non co-operation was accepted as ANC policy. He had formed this for special attention to the redistribution of land, trade unions rights, education and culture PROMINENCE In 1948, the Nationalist Government came in with apartheid as National Policy, leading Mandela to organise many protests against it, including the Defiance Campaign in 1952. He urged volunteers to protest and get arrested, filling jails and stopping the country as they were the labour forced. In 1953 the ANC agreed to sponsor the drafting of Freedom Charter where Mandela fully supported the Freedom Charter as it was clear to him that it was the voice of people, and not communist manifesto that was claimed by the critics. This highlights prominence but at the same time the supreme court had been approached as an credited attorney. Mandela married twice nevertheless he had extra-martial affairs after his first wife. However, he chose commitment to anti-apartheid movement over his family. In 1961,...
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