Apa Style of Reference

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Academic Writing Help Centre (AWHC)

APA Style
Introduction: Referencing
Academic writing relies heavily on the understanding and the use of other authors’ ideas. Students must often draw arguments, evidence, concepts and theories from other sources to support their own argumentation. Like all academic writers, they are required to give credit for the information they have used by providing proper references. Anything that is borrowed from another author must be referenced, including, but not limited to: o a direct quotation, summary or paraphrase

o another author’s idea, concept, theory, chart, image, etc. o information that is not “common knowledge”





References must provide readers with the information they need to find the sources used. Referencing styles vary according to discipline.
Referencing must be done according to the professor’s requirements.

Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing
A paraphrase is a rewording of an author’s ideas into one’s own words. It demonstrates an understanding of the material and is often used to support one’s own arguments. How to do it:





Be selective. Use only what is needed for your own purposes. Use your own style of writing without changingSelect only the sections of the original text that are relevant to your own arguments.
Any of the author’s key terms must be put in “quotation marks” or italics.

A summary is a brief account, in one’s own words, of what an author says. How to do it: •



Follow the same order of ideas as the original text.
Remain true to the original author’s intent.
Any of the author’s key terms must be put in “quotation marks” or italics.

A direct quote is when an author’s exact words are borrowed. It is used when another author expresses an idea in a way that you feel should not be changed. How to do it:

• Reproduce the original text exactly and put it in “quotation marks”. Any changes to the quote must be placed in [square brackets].
• Use direct quotes to reinforce your own ideas, not to introduce or make new arguments. • Use quotes sparingly.



APA Style
APA style referencing uses parenthetical references (ex: (Garnier, 2004) ) in the body of the paper that refer to an alphabetical Reference List at the end of the paper.



Generally, APA style is used in the social sciences.



The primary source for determining how to use APA style documentation is the Publication manual of the American

Psychological Association, currently in its 6th ed. (2010).


This document is a basic guide for students. It is not intended to and does not replace the APA

Publication manual. As this referencing style presents specific challenges depending on the source used, referring to the Publication manual is highly recommended for any source not exemplified in the present document.

© 2009 ACADEMIC WRITING HELP CENTRE (AWHC), University of Ottawa

In-Text Reference Citations in APA Style

o

Parenthetical references in the text include the author’s surname and the year of publication: (Grove, 2008).

o

Page numbers must be included for any direct quotation: “the expectations varied according to the subject studied” (Grove, 2008, p. 234). In the case of a paraphrase, the page number is not essential, but can be included to help the reader locate the material. The page number is not necessary for a summary.

o

If page numbers are not available, such as is the case for some electronic documents, the paragraph number should be used instead to help locate the material: (Grove, 2008, para. 4).

o

In publications in which the pagination restarts in every chapter, the chapter number must be included as well: (Grove, 2008, chapter 3, p. 34).

o

In in-text references and in the reference list, when naming multiple authors, an ampersand (&) is used to replace the word “and”: (Brown & Ruter, 2007). If the name of the author appears in the body of the paper, the word “and” must be used...
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