All papers should have an abstract. An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the paper, including the purpose and major findings. The abstract should be well organized, concise and specific. The abstract should be one paragraph of no more than 120 words on a page by itself. Other features of an abstract include double-spacing, one inch margins without indentation, and Times Roman or Courier 12 font.
APA Snippets and Style Writing Pointers to Help TCL Nursing Students Write Excellent Papers
The aim of this article is to discuss the varieties of pain assessments, and to determine under which circumstances each assessment is most appropriate. Pain is rated differently by each patient, and is subjective to many factors in the patient's life, including but not limited to culture and past experiences with pain. Since pain may have an effect on all aspects of a patient's life, healthcare providers must strive to most properly identify the amount of pain in order to properly control it. Symptoms such as "crying, elected temperature, facial grimacing, groaning, moaning, guarding of the affected area, loss of sleep, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, rise in blood pressure, rise in respiratory rate, and tachycardia" are typical indicators that a patient is in pain; but how much pain? Healthcare providers, namely nurses, use a system of scales and work with the patient to rate their pain. Nurses must be aware of the different pain rating scales available in order to most accurately assess a patient's pain level. A nurse must not only be able to determine which pain scale is most appropriate for the patient to identify and express his or her pain level, but also be able to carefully interpret and evaluate the scores. For example, the pain scale that is appropriate for a...