1750 – 1914 Review Revolution, Nationalism, Industrialization, Imperialism, and Emancipation!!!! Revolutions: • American Revolution – 1775 – 1783 o Declaration of Independence expressed Enlightened Ideas (Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke) o Ideas really only applied to rich, white guys o Economy was based upon slavery o Americans received aid from France (the enemy of my enemy is my ___) o Americans win! • French 1789 – 1803 (Napoleon from 1803 to 1815) o Caused by financial issues and social class structure o Declaration of the Rights of Man declared the equality of all men, regardless of wealth or birth o Violent phase led by the Committee of Public Safety – Robespierre and the Jacobins o Napoleon Bonaparte became the Consul and later the dictator o Began wars across Europe – spread Enlightened ideas; defeated at Waterloo o Congress of Vienna met to decide what to do about Europe – pretend it never happened • Haiti o Slave plantations for sugar o 500,000 slaves, 40,000 whites, 30,000 other o French sent some of the “other” (free blacks) to fight in the American Revolution and they returned with radical ideas – led to civil war in Haiti o August of 1791 a slave revolt erupted – led by Toussaint Louverture o 1801 Haiti Constitution o 1803 Independence official declared o 1804 First to abolish slavery in the Americas • Latin American o Colonies were very racially diverse with slaves and free people of various colors o 1807 Napoleon took Spain and Portugal o Spanish colonies questioned why they should remain loyal o Portuguese royals moved to Brazil o Mexico – peasant rebellion in 1810 led by Father Miguel de Hidalgo, but conservative (RICH) landlords suppressed them o South American revolts were led by Simon Bolivar and San Martin –– 1824 Spanish armies defeated o As a result of the Latin American revolutions, most Spanish whites returned to Spain while Creoles (Spanish born in the Americas – still wealthy, but were treated poorly compared to Native Spanish) maintained control – kept slavery and poor conditions for Native American peasants Nationalism • Desire to be united with people who share your language, religion, culture, and history • Italy and Germany became two European countries that unified during this time • Zionism emerged as a movement for Jews to “return to Palestine” and form a Jewish state – led by Theodor Herzl • Latin American constitutions limited participation of the poor peasants, and Native Americans sought some power – failed; Catholic Church remained very powerful • Rumblings in Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire by various groups (LEADS TO WWI) Industrialization • Science and Technological advances of the previous period led to the Industrial Revolution in the west – machine parts, trains, steamships, etc.
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Major impact on family and women as young women and children worked in factories; married men works in factories; slums developed in cities; factory workers were extremely poor, but factory managers became middle class Raw materials for factories led to imperialism – rubber from Africa, Asia, and Latin America; cotton from Egypt and India, etc.; non-western world did not prosper from European Industrialization The economic conditions developed from the Industrial Revolution led to a call for economic reform. Socialism grew out of Karl Marx – workers were poor while owners were rich – should share wealth Unionism – organized workers demanded better pay and better working conditions – outlawed in most countries
Ottoman Empire • Lost power compared to Europeans • Controlled huge numbers of nationalities, including Greeks, Arabs, and Persians • Napoleon came to Egypt and “liberated” Egypt (well, he tried to defeat the British there) – after Napoleon left Muhammad Ali took control of Egypt • Under Ali’s son, the French helped to finance the Suez Canal (1869) opened up more trade through Egypt = wealth • Ottomans lost more territory when the Greek’s rebelled • Mahmud II tried to create a...