Power not concentrated in the hands of a single ruler.
The rapid growth in urban population initially resulted from a series of volcanic eruptions that disrupted agriculture.
The elite used the cities growing labor resources to bring marginal lands into production.
Members of the elite controlled the state bureaucracy, tax collection, and commerce. Economy:
More than 2 % of the urban population was engaged in making obsidian tools
More than 2/3 of the city’s residence retained their dependency on agriculture
Religious architecture rose above a city center aligned with nearby sacred mountains and reflecting the movement of the stars.
The city’s role as a religious center and commercial power divided both divine approval of and a material basis for the elites increased wealth & status.
As the population grew the housing of commoners underwent drastic changes
Apartment like stone houses
Trade with pilgrims
Nomadic warriors from the northern frontier
Northeast of modern day Mexico city
Valley of Mexico
No absolute power
Royal succession not based on primogeniture
Imports chocolate from maya
Class of merchants controlled long distance trade
Commerce carried without money, and credit
Worshiped gods( male & Female)
Bad people were preferred sacrificial victims
Clan based social organization
Royal family highest ranked
Lower classes received some rewards from imperial expansion but lost ability to influence control decisions Interactions:
Traded chocolate with Maya
Dikes to separate freshwater and salt water
Tenochtitlan architecturally dominated by great twin temple Near:
Relocated to small islands near shore of lake texcoco
Political& priestly functions were served by rulers& other members of the elite
Never unified politically
Military forces fought to secure captives not territory
Favored the growth of trees & shrubs
Every house had a garden ( to produce dietary staple)
Rituals that linked the power of kings to gods
Temple represents physical representation elements of religion
Rulers and elite covered bodies with paint and tattoos
Women played central role in religious rituals
Everything was made without the use of wheels
Covered alters and stone monoliths were erected near major temples
Made contributions to calendar math and writing
Region included Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and southern Mexico Moche:
Created tools that allowed them to dominate the north coastal regions of peru.
They didn’t establish a formal empire or create unified political structures
Wealth , power, political power were in the hands of priest and military leaders
Political leaders were chosen based on ability to do rituals Economy:
Cultivated maize, quinoa, beans, manioc, sweet potatoes.
Women made weaving
Gold jewelry , metal work
Meat was important in their diets
Women had a special role in making textiles
The need to organize large numbers of laborers to construct and maintain the irrigation system helped promote class division
Elite wore tall headdresses
Gold and gold alloy jewelry marked their social position
Large gold plugs decorated their ears
Men & women in agriculture
North coastal region of Peru
Please join StudyMode to read the full document