Ap World History Chapter 12-14 Vocabulary

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Tarek Sahyoun
AP World History
Unit 3 Vocabulary
* Bedouins are pretty much the stereotypical Arabs because of their culture based on herding camels and goats * I would have liked to be a Shaykh if I lived in a Bedouin society because they usually possessed large herds. * It is a Muslim practice to pray toward the city of Mecca. * I was surprised to hear that Muhammad's flight to Medina began the Muslim calendar. * The Umayyad clan dominated Mecca, and later became a Muslim dynasty. * Muhammad is the prophet that started the religion of Islam, which even today is a major religion. * My grandmother reads the Qur'an in her free time.

* If one is Muslim, one must always have faith in the Umma. * Muslims must pay zakat to the mosques to allow them to keep functioning. * The Five Pillars are the set of rules that all Muslims must follow. * Caliphs were doubted by many because they took the place of Muhammad although there were no official procedures to have someone follow the prophet. * Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.

* Abu Bakr had the privilege of succeeding Muhammad as the first caliph. * The Ridda Wars following Muhammad's death restored the unity of Islam. * Jihad was the Islamic holy war.
* Mu'awiya was the first Umayyad caliph and had a capital was Damascus * Today, Sunnis make up most of the Muslim population.
* Today, Shia’s make up the minority of the Muslim population * Mawali people had many restrictions, although they were granted the right convert to Islam. * Dhimmis were known as "the people of the book" who originally included the Jews and the Christians. * The Abbasids dynasty succeeded the Umayyads after a long rivalry had ended. * Hadiths are “traditions" of the prophet Muhammad

* Wazir was the chief administrative official under the Abbasids * Dhows were used by Arab merchants, and helped them be very successful in quick trade. * The Ayan was the wealthy landed elite that emerged under the Abbasids * Al-Mahdi failed to reconcile Shi'a moderates to his dynasty and to resolve the succession problem. * Harun al-Rashid was the most famous of the Abbasid caliphs * Buyids were Persian invaders of the 10th century that captured Baghdad * The Seljuk Turks were nomadic invaders from central Asia * There have been several accounts of Crusades in history of the world. * Salah-ud-Din reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. * Ibn Khaldun was a great Muslim historian

* Al-Razi was a scientist who was incorrect, and classified all matter as animal, vegetable, and mineral. * Al-Biruni –was an advanced scientist who calculated the specific weight of major minerals. * The Ulama was made up of Islamic religious scholars.

* Al-Ghazali was a brilliant Islamic theologian
* Sufis were Islamic mystics, and spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions. * Mongols were central Asian nomadic peoples, and later had one of the largest empires in the world. * Chinggis Khan was a Mongol ruler, who would later play a large role in the history of the Mongols. * Mamluks were rulers of Egypt who descended from Turkish slaves * Muhammad ibn Qasim is respected because he was once the Arab general who conquered Sind and made it part of the Umayyad Empire * Although they are Arabic numerals, they are actually Indian. * Mahmud of Ghazni was ruler of an Afghan dynasty.

* Muhammad of Ghur was a Persian ruler of a small Afghan kingdom. * Sati was a very cruel way of dying, for widowed women had to be burned with their deceased husbands. * Bhaktic cults were Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses. * Kabir was Muslim mystic who played down the differences between Hinduism and Islam * Shrivijaya was the trading empire based on the Malacca straits * Malacca was a flourishing trading city in Malaya that...
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