Study Guide for Exam One: “Foundations: Prehistory- 600 C.E”
Terms/Ideas To Know:
1.Pastorialism: Branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
2.Patrilineal: System in which one belongs to one's father's lineage.
3. Matrilineal: A societal system in which one belongs to one's matriline or mother's lineage.
4. Hominids: Primate of the family Hominidae, which Homo sapiens is the only extant species.
5. Cuneiform: One of the earliest known forms of written expression.
6. Hammurabi’s code: A well-preserved Babylonian law code, consisting of 282 laws.
7. Upper Egypt: The strip of land, on both sides of the Nile valley, that extends from the boundaries of modern-day Aswan north to the area between El-Ayait and Zawyet Dahshur.
8. Lower Egypt: The fertile Nile Delta region, which stretches from the area between El-Aiyat and Zawyet Dahshur, south of modern-day Cairo, and the Mediterranean Sea.
9. Mandate of Heaven: A traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers.
10.Scholar-gentry: Landowners, who had passed examinations and were eligible to hold office in ancient China.
11. Legalism: One of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period and before, states that the strengths of the people are not sufficient to prevent chaos and political corruption, and recommends laws as the primary tool to fix the problem.
12. City-state: Independent entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as part of another local government.
13. Monotheism: The belief in the existence of one god.
14. Polytheism: The belief of multiple deities.
15. Maize: A grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times (also known as corn).
16. Civil service exam system: Examinations implemented in various countries for admission to the civil service.
17. Delian League: Founded in 477 BC, was an association of 173 Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire.
18. Peloponnesian League: An alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC. 19. Council of 500: A council with 500 members that helped decided on decisions.
20. Hellenic Culture: Both the specific artifacts of the ancients as well as the ideas and ideals of democracy, beauty and balance.
21. Hellenistic Culture: Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BC to about 146 BC.
22. Eunuchs: A castrated man, usually one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences.
23. Jati:The arising of a new living entity.
24. Varna: The categorization of the Hindu society by four castes, hypothesized by the Brahmins and their sacred texts.
25. Karma: Deeds that are actively shaping past, present, and future experiences.
26. Nirvana: The state of being free from suffering in Indian religion.
27. Reincarnation: Occurs when the soul or spirit, after the death of the body, comes back to life in a newborn body.
28. Transmigration: A philosophy of reincarnation.
29. Monasticism: A religious way of life characterized by the practice of renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work.
30. Diffusion: The spread of ideas through different cultures.
31. Oligarchy: Form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, corporate, or military control.
32. Democracy: Political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people, by consensus , by direct referendum , or by means of elected representatives of the people.
33. Silk Road: An extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and...