Ap World Chapter 6

Topics: Muhammad, Islam, Abu Bakr Pages: 8 (2074 words) Published: March 2, 2012
Chapter 6: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam * Islam literally means "submission," the self-surrender of the believer to the will of the one, true God, Allah * 7th c CE followers spread from the Arabian Peninsula and began a sequence of conquest and conversion that would forge the first truly global civilization * Within decades the Muslims conquered an empire that spread from Spain in the west to central Asia in the east * Islam was spread by merchants, holy people, and warriors

* Islamic civilization provided key links and channels for exchange among what had been the main civilized centers of the classical era in the Eastern Hemisphere * Muslim traders and conquerors became the prime agents for the transfer of food crops, technology, and ideas among the many centers of civilization in the Eastern Hemisphere Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam

* In the 7th c CE, a new religion arose in the Arabian peninsula. Built on the revelations received by the prophet Muhammad, originally a trader from the town of Mecca, the new faith won over many of the camel-herding tribes of the peninsula within decades. Though initially an Arab religion, in both beliefs and practices Islam contained a powerful appeal that eventually made it one of the great world religions * Arabian Peninsula consists of a lot of desert

* Bedouins: nomads that developed a distinct culture over the centuries on the Arabian Peninsula, based on camel and goat herding * Towns flourished on oases
* Several trading towns developed adjacent to the Red Sea that played pivotal roles in the emergence of Islam * Safety of trade routes between towns was in the hands of the bedouins that lived along the vulnerable caravan routes to the north and the south Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance

* Bedouin herders lived in kin-related clan groups in highly mobile tent encampments * Shaykhs: leaders of the tribes and clans, were normally elected by councils of elder advisors, and were usually men with large herds, several wives, many children, and numerous retainers * Other classes included warriors and slaves

Towns and Long-Distance Trade
* There were also farmers and town dwellers:mostly in western and southern parts of the peninsula * Mecca was the most important city, located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea * Mecca was founded by the Umayyad clan of the Quraysh bedouin tribe and that family dominated the politics of Mecca * The Ka'ba: is located in Mecca and was one of the most revered religious shrines in pre-Islamic Arabia and attracted pilgrims and traders to Mecca * Town of the Yathrib (later Medina, or city of the prophet) was also on an oases * Control in Medina was contested between two bedouin and three Jewish clans Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia

* Women played key economic roles
* Many tribes were matrilineal
* In some tribes both men and women could have multiple marriage partners * Men sent a brides-price to the woman's family (as opposed to a dowry) * Women's advice was highly regarded in clan and tribal councils and they often wrote poetry * However, women were not equal, could not be warriors

Poets and Neglected Gods
* Main focus of bedouin cultural creativity was poetry
* Bedouin religion was a blend of animism and polytheism
* Standards of morality and proper behavior were rooted in tribal customs and unwritten codes of honor The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam
* The Prophet Muhammad was born around 570CE into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe * Muhammad's father died before he was born, so he was raised by his father's relatives in a bedouin encampment * He also lost his mother early on

* In his adolescence, Muhammad moved to Mecca and in his 20's worked as a trader for a wealthy widow named Khadijah whom he eventually married * Muhammad was a merchant and trader
* Beginning around 610 or earlier Muhammad started receiving the...
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