Chapter 17 vocab.
* Treaty of Westphalia – Ended thirty years war in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion – either Protestant or Catholic. * English Civil War – Conflict between 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king. * Proletariat – Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries. * Witchcraft persecution – Reflected resentment against poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas. * Scientific Revolution – Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages. * Copernicus – Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe. * Johannes Kepler – (1571 – 1630) Was and astronomer and mathematician who was a prominent figure in the scientific revolution. * Galileo – Published Copernicus’s findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work. * William Harvey – English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as a pump. * Francis Bacon – (1561-1626) Was and English philosopher, statesman, author, and scientist. He was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for work on the scientific method. * Rene’ Descartes – Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th...
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