Test Review: Rise of Islam and East Asia (Chapter 14 and 15)
1. Discuss the following with regards to Islam:
A. FOUNDING: Islam was founded by Muhammad when he received word from Allah in a prophecy (or vision). He began life in Mecca where idolatry was a main fact of life but had to flee to Madinah to escape prosecution in what has come to be known as the Hijrah. Islam spread through his family and friends at first but later his companions known as sahabat continued his work by a number of successful conquests which spread Islam to most of the middle east. Islam reached it high point when Muhammad and his army from Madinah conquered Mecca which was later deemed to the the Holy City. B. BELIEFS: 1) Daily prayer (Salat), 2) Donating to poor (Zakkat), 3) Visiting Mecca (Pilgramage) (Hajj), 4) Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan (Siam) 5)There is one God (Allah) (Shahada)
Muhammad is the last prophet of God in a series of prophets beginning with Adam since the start of the earth. God is monotheistic, an undivided God. Jesus was only a prophet, a mere man, not God nor the Son of God. He did not die on the cross, but arose into heaven by the will of God. The Qur'an is the last book of God given to Muhammad through the Holy Spirit (or angel Gabriel) that is not corrupt unlike the Torah, Psalms, and gospels of Jesus. On the day of resurrection, God will assign each person heaven or hell based upon their deeds in this life.
C. EXPANSION: After the prophet Muhammad's death many desert nomads and others claimed to be prophets, during this time Abu Bakr went to war with these people to prove them as false. After Abu Bakr, Umr took over Persia, and other parts of Asia Minor, after many years Tariq bin Ziyad took over Spain and Islam slowly traveled though Europe.
DI. ABU BAKR: Closest friend and companion of Muhammad and the first Muslim caliph. He was one of the first men to convert to Islam, and was chosen by the Prophet as his companion on the hijrah to Medina. Helped compile the Quaran from Muhammad's sayings. Dar al-Islam appeared after his death. Led many wars of conquest and invasions leading to the expansion of Islam. Was in the Sunni's favor.
DII. ALI: Shiite's pick for Muhammad's successor. the second person to belief in the teachings of Mohammed. A close associate and adviser of Mohammed all his life, Ali was renowned as a pious man, an honest judge, a warrior, and a leader.
E. HIJRA: The exodus of Mohammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622.
F. HAJJ: The fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. It lays out the goal of each Muslim performing a pilgrimage to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba and to rededicate themselves to Allah at sites important in his life.
G. ROLE OF WOMEN: Islam gave women rights and privileges at a time when only barbaric manners and values dominated. Women are considered crucial members of society in Islam since they are assigned the job of bringing up future generations and sometimes financial control. They could legally inherit land, divorce husbands on their own initiative and engage in business venture.
H. DAR AL-ISLAM:
HI. WHAT DOES THE TERM MEAN: It's the part of the world under Islamic control. The opposite of Dar al-Garb ( the house of war ) which comprises all those not yet forced to convert to Islam.
HII. AGRICULTURE: Included staple crops such as sugar cane, rice, new vegetable and fruit; industrial crops such as cotton, indigo and henna. These new crops led to a richer and more varied diet. More food because they could extend their growing seasons. Travel and communication encouraged experimentation. Paid very close attention to fertilization, crop rotation and outlined their findings in hundreds or agricultural manuals. Increased economic growth. Increased production led to the rapid growth of Islamic cities.
HIII. INDUSTRY: Their new industrial crops had important uses in the textile and clothing industry....