1. The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age—ending in 12,000 BCE—refers to the period of time typified by use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence. Neanderthals, a species of the genus Homo, disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period whereas Homo sapiens, a humanoid species, emerged as mot successful at the end of the Paleolithic period. The characteristics of the human spices in the Paleolithic Ageincluded slow population growth, rituals to lessen the fear of death, the development of simple stone and wooden tools, and the ability to communicate with speech, but the development of agricultural-based economies did NOT characterize the human species in the Paleolithic Age. Also, hunter-gatherers in the Paleolithic Age could NOT support large populations and elaborate societies.
2. The Neolithic revolution (10,000/8500—3500 BCE) first occurred in the Middle East. It was the revolution in economic, political, religious, andsocial organizations and functions.The emergence of agriculture, or the Neolithic Revolution, caused the gradual removal of hunters from the agricultural community, an increase in the specialization of political, economic, and religious functions, a population explosion, and the ability of humans to settle more permanently in one spot, but the emergence of the Neolithic Revolution did NOT cause the disappearance of hunter-gatherer communities.
3. The development of cities, political units capable of ruling large regions, adaptation of new technology—such as metal tools, and writing systems—all define civilization, whereas equality between social classes does NOT define civilizations.
4. Egyptian civilization differed from Mesopotamian civilization by stressing more centralized and durable empires.
5. The Tigris-Euphrates civilization of Sumeria produced the first writing system. The Sumerians improved agricultural prosperity by learning about fertilizers and using silver to conduct commercial exchange. The Sumerian government helped regulate and enforce the duties of religion, and also provided a system of courts for justice. The Sumerians were characterized by the development of astronomical sciences, intense religious beliefs, and tightly organized city-states, ruled by kings who claimed divine authority.
6. The characteristic political organization of the Tigris-Euphrates civilization was tightly organized city-states, ruled by kings who claimed divinity. The government helped regulate and enforce the duties of religion and also provided a system of courts for justice.
7. The Indus Valley Civilization was most completely destroyed by invasion. Much of the Harappan civilization was destroyed and unknown for thousands of years, although some legacies (e.g., yoga positions) carried on.
8. The Chinese view of nature stressed harmony and balance.
9. In Chinese history, a “dynasty” is a family of kings that would rule over China during the classical period.
10. Besides the “mean people”, merchants were considered to have the lowest status in classical China.
11. China’s classical period gave rise to many intellectual traditions, including Daoism, the Five Classicals, and Confucianism, but NOT Buddhism.
12. Ceremony was an important part of the Chinese upper-class life because the Chinese believed that people should restrain crude impulses.
13. The basic Confucian beliefs were: good society has a firm hierarchy, continuity is the goal of a sensible state, the emporer should be obeyed like the father is obeyed in a family, and a person should exihibit ren in all of their interactions. They did not believe in commendation and punishment to control society.
14. China's key economic strengths were high levels of technological innovation, good trade routes, and had a solid agricultural base.
15. The Chinese government accepted Daoism because it provided spiritual insights, they acknowledge the son of heaven, and...