CRITICAL PERIOD: 1788-1815
01. George Washington [1789-1797] No Official Party Affiliation – sympathetic to Federalist Party policies Vice President – John Adams – Federalist MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS: Adoption of the Bill of Rights 1791 (first ten amendments) Judiciary Act of 1789 establishes federal courts and attorney general Establishment of the Bank of the United States Hamiltonian Fiscal Policies Assumption of State Debts from Revolution Establishment “full faith and credit” of the United States by paying off domestic and foreign loans for Revolution Centralized bank for unified currency, loans, and savings Whiskey Rebellion (Pennsylvania farmers against 1791 federal tax on whiskey; first test of Federal enforcement power) 1794 Farewell Address 1796 warns America to avoid “permanent alliances” MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS: Tariff of 1789 (revenue and protectionism) Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 to keep America out of European wars Jay Treaty with England (resolution of Treaty of Paris) 1794-95 Pinckney Treaty with Spain (free navigation of Mississippi) 1795 French Revolution Storming of the Bastille 1789 Storming of the Tuileries 1792 Execution of Louis XVI 1793 Reign of Terror 1793 and Fall of Robespierre 1794 Failed insurrection of the sans-culottes 1795 The Directory 1795-1799 Genêt Affair 1793 saw French ambassador attempt to gain public support for the French Revolution; remains in America for fear of execution there 02. John Adams [1797-1801] – first President to live in the White House Federalist Vice President – Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republican MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798: “compact” idea of Federalism Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Alien Friends Act (deportation of citizens of friendly nations) Sedition Act (no resistance to Federal Laws or criticism of the national government) Naturalization Act 1798 establishes 14 year residency requirement Federal offices moved to new capitol, Washington, D.C. John Marshall appointed Chief Justice of Supreme Court Judiciary Act of 1801 and the “Midnight Judges” scandal MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS: French Revolution Coup d’etat of Napoleon Bonaparte 1799 Napoleonic Empire established X Y Z Affair 1797 saw French bribery of American officials over treaty with France leads to naval conflict but not war with France
03. Thomas Jefferson [1801-1809] Democratic Republican / Jeffersonian Republican Vice Presidents – Aaron Burr; George Clinton MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS: Naturalization Act of 1802 (return to 5 years residency requirement) Marbury v. Madison 1803 refutes Judiciary Act of 1798 Lewis & Clark Expedition 1804-1805 Ratification of the 12th Amendment (resolves election 1800 fiasco) Impeachment proceedings against Associate Justice Samuel Chase 1804 Conspiracies of Aaron Burr Secession attempt on New England states Duel with Hamilton after Hamilton foils the plot; Hamilton is killed and Burr runs off to Louisiana Territory Secession attempt with Louisiana Territory Invasion of Mexico to extend “New Confederacy” Burr betrayed by co-conspirator General James Wilkinson, Burr acquitted of treason charges, flees to Europe Invasion of United States by France Embargo Act of 1807 hurts domestic industry and trade by cutting off intercourse with Britain and France and other nations MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS: U.S. Marines sent to Tripoli to suppress the challenge to American merchant marine freedoms of the Barbary Pirates (1801-1805) Spain refutes “right of deposit” from Pinckney Treaty 1802 Louisiana Purchase is 828,000 acres at 3 cents per acre to create an “Empire of Liberty” [April 30, 1803] British Orders in Council restrict American shipping 1806 Embargo Act of 1807 is intended to punish Britain and France for posturing and threatening American merchant marine interests Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 reopens...