Chapter 7 term Sheet
The Road to Revolution
Republicanism - a just society as one is in which all citizens willingly subordinate their private, selfish interests to the common good. 2.
Radical Whigs - group of British political commentators; widely read by the colonists, feared the threat to liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and Parliament; warned to colonists to be watchful of any violations to their rights or corruption in leadership; hated use of patronage and bribes by the king's ministers 3.
Theory of “Mercantilism” - justified British control of the colonists; economic theorists believed wealth was power and a countries economic wealth (i.e. military and political power) could be measured by the amount of gold in its treasury; ergo need to export more than it imported; colonies should be used solely for the benefit of the mother country. 4.
Navigation Law of 1650 - aimed at Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into the American carrying trade; the law harmed all British economic rivals in the colonies; "all goods going in and out of the colonies HAVE to be transported in British or colonial vessels. Subsequent laws led to even more restrictions: European goods destined for Britain had to be landed in Britain so tariffs could be collected; sell certain products (tobacco) exclusively to Britain. 5.
“Enumerated” Products - American merchants must ship certain products, notably tobacco, exclusively to Britain, even though prices might be better somewhere else. 6.
Nullification of Laws (“Royal Veto”) - The British crown also reserved the right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assemblies if such laws worked mischief with the mercantilist system. 7.
George Grenville - the highly disliked (by the Americans at least) prime minister of Britain 1763-1765; ended salutary neglect in the colonies by ordering the increased enforcement of the Navigation Laws and pushed through the infamous Sugar Act, Stamp, and Quartering Acts. 8.
Sugar Act (1764) - passed by Parliament with the help of George Greenville; first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. Among various provisions it: increase duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies; tariffs reduced after protests. 9.
Quartering Act (1765) - required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops therefore reducing costs of maintaining an army; Americans didn't want the soldiers there: "the war is over!" 10.
Stamp Act (1765) - purpose: raise revenues to support the new military force; imposed by Grenville; direct tax on legal and commercial documents (playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, marriage licenses, bills of lading); started "no taxation without representation." 11.
“Taxation Without Representation” - hey conceded the right of Parliament to legislate about matters that affected the entire empire, including the regulation of trade but denied the right of Parliament to impose taxes on Americans because no Americans were seated in Parliament; Only their elected colonial legislatures, the Americans insisted, could legally tax 12.
“Virtual Representation” - Grenville's claim that even though Americans had no direct representatives in Parliament, they were still represented because Parliament represented all British subjects regardless of who actually elected the representatives; the colonists found it ridiculous. 13.
Stamp Act Congress (1765) - 9 of the colonies participated in sending 27 delegates to New York City in protestation of the Stamp Act; they drew up a list of rights and grievances and sent it to the king asking to repeal the Act; important: showed the first signs of unified colonial action, first non-importation agreement against British goods. 14.
Nonimportation Agreements - agreements between the colonists not to purchase British goods; colonists were united in their sense of common oppression from Britain; they enforced the agreements...
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