-The U.S. was put into World war II with the most humiliating military defeat in its history. -The Americans wanted to attack Japan first for payback.
-In the ABC-1 agreement with Britain, Washington adopted the strategy of getting Germany first.
-If America attacked Japan, Hitler would defeat the Allies. -The get Germany first strategy was the foundation on which all American military strategy was built.
-It encountered criticism from Americans who wanted to attack Japan.
-Protests were also done by American commanders in the Pacific and by Chinese and Australian allies.
-FDR resisted these pressures.
The Allies Trade Space for Time
-The Allies had the great mass of the world's population on their side.
-The U.S. was the mightiest military power on earth - potentially.
-Wars are won with bullets, not blueprints.
-America came close to losing the war to the well-armed aggressors before it could begin to throw its full
weight onto the scales. -Time was the most needed munition.
-Expense was no limitation.
-The problem confronting America was to retool itself for all-out war production, while praying that the
dictators would not crush their adversaries who still remained - notably Britain and the Soviet Union.
-Haste was imperative because the German scientists might turn up with unbeatable secret weapons,
including rocket bombs and atomic arms. -America's task was more complex and back-breaking than during World War I.
-It had to feed, clothe, and arm itself, as well as transport its forces to regions as far separated as Britain
-It had to send a vast amount of food an munitions to its allies, who stretched from the USSR to Australia.
The Shock of War
-National unity was no worry, thanks to the blow by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor.
-American Communists denounced the Anglo-French imperialist war before Hitler attacked Stalin in 1941,
but they now called for an unmitigated assault on the Axis powers.
-The handful of pro-Hitlerites in the U.S. melted away, while millions of Italian Americans and German
Americans supported the nation's war program. -In contrast to World War I, when the patriotism of millions of immigrants was questioned, World War II speeded the assimilation of many ethnic groups into American society.
-Immigration had been choked off for almost two decades before 1941, and America's ethnic
communities were not composed of settled members, whose votes were crucial to the Democratic party.
-There was virtually no government witch-hunting of minority groups, as had happened in World War I. -An exception was the plight of many Japanese Americans, concentrated on the Pacific Coast.
-The Washington top command, fearing that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion,
herded them together in concentration camps, though most were American-born U.S. citizens.
-This precaution was unnecessary and unfair, as the loyalty and combat record of Japanese Americans
-A wave of post-Pearl Harbor hysteria, backed by the long historical swell of anti-Japanese prejudice on
the West Coast, robbed many Americans of their good sense and sense of justice. -The internment camps deprived Japanese Americans of dignity and basic rights; the internees also lost a lot of money in property and foregone earnings.
-The wartime Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Japanese relocation in Korematsu v. U.S.
-In 1988, the U.S. government officially apologized for its action and approved the payment of reparations
of $20,000 to each camp survivor. -The war prompted other changes in the American mood.
-Many programs of the New Deal - including the CCC, the WPA, and the NYA - were wiped out by the
conservative Congress elected in 1942.
-FDR declared in 1943 that the New Deal would be replaced with the intention of winning the war.
-His announcement acknowledged the urgency of the war effort and the power of the revitalized...
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