ID’s/ Objective Questions
1) The English Civil War- The English Civil War took place during the years 1642-1646. The English Civil War was the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the “parliamentarians,” that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth. The parliamentary army’s leader, Oliver Cromwell, during the so-called Commonwealth period ruled. But after his death Parliament decided to restore the monarchy if Charles I’s son and heir, Charles II agreed to restrictions on his authority.
2) James, Duke of York- James II was Charles II’s younger brother and he quickly benefited from his brother’s generosity. In 1644, Charles gave James the region between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, including the Hudson Valley and Long Island. James immediately organized an invasion fleet. In August, James’s warships anchored off Manhattan Island and demanded New Netherlands’s surrender. Thus James had acquired a heterogeneous possession, which he renamed New York.
3) Quakers- Quakers are members of the Society of Friends. The new, small sect rejected earthly and religious hierarchies. Quakers believed that anyone could be saved by directly receiving God’s “inner light” and that all people were equal in God’s sight. Quakers allowed anyone, male or female, to speak in meetings or become a “public friend” and travel to spread God’s word. Many did not welcome Quakers and they were very much persecuted, and some were even hanged for preaching the Quaker doctrine. And finally in 1681, they obtained their own colony, given to them by Charles II. It was located between Maryland and New York; it was given to William Penn, one of his good friends and a prominent member of the sect.
4) William Penn- William Penn was a prominent member of the Quaker sect. Penn was given land so that he could establish a colony by his good friend Charles II. He was thirty-seven years old at the time when he held the colony as a personal proprietorship, one that earns profits for his descendants until the American Revolution. Penn offered land to all comers on liberal terms, and promised toleration of all religions. Penn’s activities and the Quaker’s attraction to his land gave rise to a migration whose magnitude equaled the Puritan exodus to New England in the 1630s 5) Witchcraft accusations and trials in New England 1650-1690- The small yet densely populated New England communities experienced a new phenomenon after approximately 1650, burgeoning witchcraft accusations and trials. Most seventeenth century people believed that witches existed. They were considered allies of the devil who were thought to harness invisible spirits for good or evil purposes. A witch might engage in fortunetelling, prepare healing potions or charms, or harm others by causing the death of a child or valuable animal. Yet for some reason New England witnessed many trials of accused witches about one hundred in all before 1590. Most of the accused were middle-aged women who had angered their neighbors. And although many were accused, few were convicted, and even fewer were executed, because judges still remained skeptical of all the charges.
6) The Beaver Wars- The war with the Hurons in the 1640s initiated a series of conflicts with other Indians known as the Beaver Wars, in which the Iroquois fought to achieve control of the lucrative peltry trade. Iroquois warriors did not themselves trap beaver, instead they raided other villages in search of catches of pelts or attacked Indians from the interior as they carried furs to the European outposts. Then the Iroquois traded that for European-made blankets, knives, guns, alcohol, and other desirable items. The Iroquois thus became the center of dominance of that type of trade.
7) The Pueblo revolt of 1680- The Pueblo revolt constituted the most successful and...