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US History AP Outline Chapter 17
The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900
I. Native Americans and the Trans-Mississippi West
a. The Plains Indians
i. Three major sub regions:
-The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa Apaches -Extended family ties and tribal cooperation; families joined clans to help make decisions -Sioux bands focused on religious and harvest celebrations and was complex; life was a series of circles; self torture; sacrificing; -Indians dispersed across the landscape to minimize damage to the lands; b. The Destruction of Nomadic Indian Life

-declining bison, intruding miners, the Federal Gov’t introduced tribal reservations -expected to change to an agricultural way of life-force
-the Pueblos, Crows, and Hidatsas peacefully accepted
-the Dakota Sioux and Navajos opposed to no avail-faced U.S. army in a series of final battles -unfulfilled promises, misunderstandings, butchery, and brutality marked the conflice; Indians facing starvation near Sand Creek snuck away to hunt bison and steal livestock -Governor made proclamation to seek out and kill all hostile Indians on sight and activated a regiment of troops under Colonel John Chivington who massacred a peaceful band of Indians at Sand Creek -Results: Congress sent a peace commission to end fighting and set aside two large districts, one north of Nebraska, and the other south of Kansas, where tribes might convert to Christianity-threats of force from Federal Gov’t. -the Medicine Lodge Treaty: pledged to live on land in present-day Oklahoma -Fort Laramie Treaty: agreed to move to reservations on the so-called Great Sioux Reserve in return for money and provisions -Indians rebelled with violence; Congress established a Board of Indian Commissioners to reform the reservation system-failed c. Custer’s Last Stand, 1876

-Chief Red Cloud’s Oglala band and Chief Spotted Tail’s Brulé and won the concession of staying on their traditional lands; non-treaty Sioux found a powerful leader in Sitting Bull -William Tecumseh Sherman sent George Custer into the Black Hills of South Dakota to find a location to keep an eye on renegade Indians (really to confirm rumors of gold in the Black Hills) -Custer mobilized troops to Little Bighorn River and recklessly advanced against a large company of Cheyenne and Sioux warriors led by Sitting Bull-his army was wiped out -Defeat made army more determined; Sitting Bull surrendered from lack of provisions and joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show d. “Saving” the Indians

-the Women’s National Indian Rights Association
-the Dawes Severalty Act: reform Indians and the treatment of Indians as individuals and gave 160 acres of land for farming or 320 acres for grazing to the head of any family complying with the law -eventually became a boon to speculators who commonly obtained the Indians’ most arable tracts of land e. The Ghost Dance and the End of Indian Resistance on the Great Plains, 1890 -Wovoka, a prophet, promised to restore the Sioux to their original dominance on the Great Plains if they performed the Ghost Dance -Ghost shirts decorated to ward off evil, moved in a circle until a trance-like state -military authorities grew alarmed, tried to arrest Sitting Bull-killed -Wounded Knee: 300 Indians slaughtered, the end of conflict

II. Settling the West
a. The First Transcontinental Railroad
-the Pacific Railroad Act: authorized the construction of a new transcontinental link, provided grants of land to railroads making them the largest landholders in the West -The Central Pacific: Chinese workers because of low wages, non-drinkers, and furnished their own food and tents-nearly 12,000 -Union Pacific meets Central Pacific at Promontory Point, Utah...
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