Step 1: State Your Argument
Based on your existing knowledge of American Indian–colonial relations in North America, write an argument to use as the basis of your research. The French experienced the best relationship with the natives as they were very cooperative with the Natives, peacefully tried to convert them and married Native women and integrated with them. The Spanish came behind the French as they integrated with them as well however they were much more violent in exploiting them for resources through systems like the encomienda system. However, the English had the most tarnished relationship with the Natives as they looked to expand at the Natives expense and saw the Natives as inferiors. Step 2: Research Notes
Use the chart below to keep track of primary and secondary source evidence you find that supports your argument. Be sure to fill out each column. The following primary sources can be found on the AP U.S. History Research Library: Thomas Morton, "Manners and Customs of the Indians," an extract from his "New English Cannon," 1637 Pedro Naranjo, "Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680" Mary Rowlandson, "Captivity and Restoration"
Jean Nicolet, "Account of the First Contact of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)" You can use any secondary sources that you like as long as they are reliable and fully cited. Author or title of source
Location and date written
Description of text
Is the account biased?
“Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680" by Pedro Naranjo
In 1680, the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico rose up against the Spanish missionaries and soldiers, destroying every Catholic church in the region. Pedro Naranjo, an Indian prisoner, explains the reasons behind the revolt.
It may be biased on the account that Pedro Naranjo was himself an Indian prisoner and may be sympathetic to the Indian cause and have resentment for the Spanish.
“Captivity and Restoration” by Mary Rowlandson
Location: Written in the northern Birtish colonies, Lancaster Written: 1682
Mary Rowlandson was a colonial American woman who was captured during an attack by Native Americans during King Philip's War and held ransom for 11 weeks
It may be biased as she had initial impression of the Natives beforehand as savages which may make her opinion biased.
"Account of the First Contact of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)" by Jean Nicolet
Location: The French colony, Green Bay
This was an account by French explorer Jean Nicolet about the first interactions with the between the Natives and the French.
The account is unlikely to be biased as it is a historical account of the interactions with any opinions of what happened.
Williams, West Virginia: A History for Beginners By John Alexander William
In the beginning of William’s book he talks of the many disputes between the Natives and the colonists. He later on elaborates on the entire history of the State.
This may be biased as the historian does not cite many Native sources but most sources come from colonists.
"Native Americans, Treatment of (Spain Vs. England) (Issue)." By Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History
An article of how the Natives were treated by the Spanish and the English in their respective colonies.
I could not find any bias in the article.
List at least two claims from secondary sources or other historians that support your own argument here. I found support in my claim that the Spanish where very serious about Christianizing the Natives and were very brutal in their exploitation of the Natives for resources. For example “Spanish churchmen took very seriously their obligation...
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