...DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK
SOCI 1005 (SY16C) -INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS FOR THE
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
SUMMER SCHOOL 2012/2013- COURSE OUTLINE
Lecturer: Ayesha Facey
Office: Room 46, Faculty of Social Sciences
Office #: 970-6324
E-mail: ayeshafcy@yahoo.com
COURSE OBJECTIVE
This course aims to introduce students to basic univariate and bivariate statistics. A student who successfully completes this course will possess a reasonable level of knowledge of basic statistics and their interpretations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
• Adequately define statistical concepts
• Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
• Distinguish between qualitative data and quantitative data
• Classify data with respect to the four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
• Create grouped frequency distributions
• Compute measures of central tendency and variation and use them to analyze data
• Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient and equation of the least-squares regression line for bivariate data and use the results to make predictions.
• Solve probabilities
• Compute binomial distributions
• Use the normal distribution to interpret z scores and compute probabilities
•...
...one person is studied in depth in the hope or revealing universal principles.
3. Surveys- a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
4. Correlation studies- a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
4.1 Positive correlation- if two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together.
4.2 Negative correlation- If two sets of scores relate inversely, one set going up as the other goes down.
4.3 Scatter plot- a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.
4.4 Correlation coefficient- a statistic index of the relationship between two things.
5. Experiments- a research method which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
5.1 Independent variable- the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
5.2 Dependent- the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
5.3 Control group- in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment.
5.4 Experimental group- in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
5.5 Random assignment- assigning participants to experimental...
...Exploration
I. Prehistory
A. Bering Land Bridge
B. Hundreds of independent tribes
C. Civilizations – Mayans – Central, Incas – South, Aztecs – Mexico
D. Mount Builders – Ohio
II. Early Discoverers
Vikings – Leif Ericsson – Greenland – Northern Canada – 1000 AD
Italian Christopher Columbus – for Spain – 1492 - Guanahani
III. Spanish/Portugese Exploration
Reasons for exploring
Wealthy nations – gold based
Renaissance – optimism/humanism – we can do anything
Trade routes
Printing press – ideas spread
Mariner’s compass – exploration possible
Spain – peace w/ Isabella and Ferdinand uniting plus no Moors/Muslims
Conquistadores – Spanish – gold/glory – fighting tradition
Portugal
Looking water route to Asia – brought slavery from Africa
Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494 – Pope divides New World
Brazil to Portugal – Rest to Spain
IV. Explorers – conquest – weapons + disease + use rival tribes
Ponce de Leon – fountain of youth
Pizarro – defeated Incas
Cortez – defeated Aztecs/Montezuma
V. Spanish
A. Encomienda System – Spaniard gets land and all inhabitants become laborers
B. Missions – Junipero Serra – San Diego + 21 missions
a. Spread religion – centers of trade/education
b. “Black Legend” – missionaries kill Indians – disease kind of true
VI. Exchange of goods
Improved diet of Europeans – corn, tobacco, tomato, avocado – balanced
Cattle, horses, germs to New World
The Great Depression was a time of severe poverty and...
...techniques.
Firstly we look at data analysis. This approach starts with data that are manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic
understanding of probability. Chapter 2 covers basic rules of probability and in Chapter 3 we
discuss the important concept of probability distributions in some generality.
In Chapter 4 we discuss statistical inference (estimation), where the basic problem is to estimate
one or more characteristics of a population. Since it is too expensive to obtain the population
information, we instead select a sample from the population and then use the information in the
sample to infer the...
...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...
...Psychology Chapter 3 outline
Helen Sternberg
A. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
a. Chromosomes- threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
b. DNA- a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
c. Genes- the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
d. Genome- the complete instructions for making and organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes.
B. Evolutionary Psychology: Maximizing Fitness
i. Domestication of animals points to nurture over nature
ii. Selective breeding to form a tame animal supports this idea
iii. One can transform a “beast” into a “beauty”
b. Natural Selection
i. Natural Selection- the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
ii. Mutation- a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; source of genetic diversity
iii. Evolutionary Psychology- the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Natural selection has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes
iv. Only the strong survive in the real world
c. Sexuality...
...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...
...1. A radio station that plays classical music has a “By Request” program each Saturday night. The percentage of requests for composers on a particular night are listed below:
Composers Percentage of Requests
Bach 5
Beethoven 26
Brahms 9
Dvorak 2
Mendelssohn 3
Mozart 21
Schubert 12
Schumann 7
Tchaikovsky 14
Wagner 1
a. Does the data listed above comprise a valid probability distribution? Explain.
The individual probabilities are all between 0 & 1 and the sum = 100%
b. What is the probability that a randomly selected request is for one of the three B’s?
P(one of the B’s) = P(Bach) + P(Beethoven) + P(Brahms) = 5 + 26 + 9 = 40%
c. What is the probability that a randomly selected request is for a Mozart piece?
P(Mozart) = 21%
d. What is the probability that a randomly selected request is not for one of the two S’s?
P(not Schubert or Schumann) = 1 – P(Schubert or Schumann)
= 1 – (12 + 7)
= 81%
e. Neither Bach nor Wagner wrote any symphonies. What is the probability that a randomly selected request is for a composer who wrote at least one symphony?
P(Symphony) = 1 – P(Bach or Wagner)
= 1 – (5 + 1)
= 94%
f. What is the probability that a randomly selected request is for a composer other...