AP Psychology Summer Assignment Activity 1:
Howard Gardner: American developmental psychologist who is a professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard University. Known for his theory on multiple intelligence which states that humans have various ways of learning as well as processing information, but these methods are independent of one another: leading to multiple “intelligences” as opposed to a general intelligence factor among correlated abilities. E.L. Thorndike: American pioneer in Comparative psychology. Spent a majority his career at Teachers College, Columbia University. Contribution: Law of effect- the principle that behavior followed by favorable consequences becomes much more likely. Behavior followed by less likely consequences becomes less likely. Charles Spearman: English psychologist who acquired a PhD in experimental psychology. Contribution: he found that specific mental talents were very highly correlated. He summarized that all cognitive abilities showed a common core or “g” for general ability. David Wechsler: Leading American Psychologist. He developed popular intelligence scales such as Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). The tests are still based on his philosophy that intelligence is “the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with one’s environment.” Paul Broca: French anthropologist, surgeon, anatomist, and physician. Best known for Broca’s Area which is the left frontal lobe that directs muscle movement involved in speech. His work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from Aphasia (which limits speech abilities) contained lesions in a certain part of the cortex. This was the first anatomical proof of the localization of brain function. Carl Wernicke: a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, and neuropathologist. He noticed that not all language deficits were the result of damage to Broca’s area but rather he found that damage to the left temporal lobe resulted in deficits in language comprehension. The person damaged in this area uses correct words but they do not make sense. Alfred Binet: French psychologist who invented the Binet test or known today as the IQ test. It was the first ever usable intelligence test. His goal was to identify students who were in need of more help in coping with the school’s curriculum. Eric Erikson: German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings. First person to coin the phrase “identity crisis”. He believed that people evolved through 8 stages over a life span with each stage marked by confronting “who am I”. Lewis Terman: An American psychologist noted for his pioneering in educational psychology. He is known as the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ test. He basically revised Binet’s IQ test to be used to help classify children and help put them on the appropriate job-track. He believed IQ was inherited and was the strongest predictor of one's ultimate success in life. Kubler-Ross: A Swiss-American psychiatrist known for the Kubler-Ross model which is a theory that proposes that the terminally ill pass through a sequence of 5 stages (Denial, Anger/Resentment, bargaining with God, depression, and acceptance.) Ernst Weber: A German physician and is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Pioneered the first study on JND (just noticeable difference). It became Weber’s law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. The bigger/intense the standard stimulus, the larger the increment needed to get a noticeable difference. Example: a room with 10 candles vs. one with 30 candles. Mary Ainsworth: a Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work in the development of...
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