Ap Psychology Memory

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Cognition: 7A-Memory outline

Memory- Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.Information processing

Human memory like a computer 1. Get info into our brain –encoding: processing of info into memory system2. Retain info –storage: retention of encoded info over time3. Get it back later –retrieval: process of getting into out of memory storage

Humans store vast amounts of info in long-term memory: relatively permanentand limitless storehouse of the memory system

Short-term memory: activated memory that holds few items briefly; phonenumber just dial •
The Atkinson-Shiffrin classic three-stage model of memory suggests that we (1)register fleeting sensory memories, some of which are (2) processed into on-screenshort-term memories, a tiny fraction of then are (3) encoded for long-term memoryand possibly later retrieval. •

The working-memory model includes visual-spatial and auditory subsystems,coordinated by a central executive processor that focuses attention where needed.Encoding: Getting Information In

Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental info; occurs withlittle or no effort, without our awareness, and without interfering with our thinking of other things; space, time, frequency, well-learned info

Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

After practice, effort processing becomes more automatic

Can boost memory through rehearsal: conscious repetition of info, either tomaintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

Next-in-line effect: when people go around circle saying names/words, poorest memories are for name/word person before them said

Information received before sleep is hardly ever remembered areconsciousness fade before processing able

Retain info better when rehearsal distributed over time –phenomenon calledspacing effect: tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through cramming

When given a list of items and ask to recall, people often demonstrate serial position effect: tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list What we encode

Rehearsal will not encode all info equally well because processing of info is in 3ways1. Semantic encoding: encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words2. Acoustic encoding: encoding of sound, especially the sound of words3. Visual encoding: encoding of picture images

Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving flashed a word to people, asking question thatrequired processing either visually, acoustically, or semantically; semanticencoding was found to yield much better memoryVisual Encoding

Imagery: mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially whencombined with semantic encoding like how we can easily picture where we wereyesterday, where we sat, and what we wore.

Mnemonic: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery andorganizational devices

Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occursautomatically

We are able to remember info best when able to organize it into personalmeaningful arrangements •
We tend to remember concrete nouns better than abstract nouns because, we canassociate both an image and a meaning with the object or noun, but only a meaningwith process. •
In hierarchies, we process information by dividing it into logical levels, beginningwith the most general and moving to the most specific. •
Forgetting as Encoding Failure

Failure to encode info –never entered memory system

Much of what we sense, we never notice

Raymond Nickerson and Marilyn Adams discover most people cannot pick the realAmerican penny from different onesStorage: Retaining Information •
Sensory memory: immediate, initial recording of sensory info in memory system •
we have short temporary photographic memory...
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