AP Psychology Exam Review

Topics: Human brain, Psychology, Classical conditioning Pages: 15 (6392 words) Published: March 17, 2015
AP Psychology Exam Review

Breakdown of Question Categories:
2-4%history – (prologue)
6-8%methods and approaches – (chapter 1)
8-10%biological bases of behavior – (chapter 2, 3, 14)
7-9%sensation and perception – (chapter 5, 6)
2-4%states of consciousness – (chapter 7)
7-9%learning – (chapter 8)
8-10%cognition – (chapter 9, 10)
7-9%motivation and emotion – (chapter 12, 13)
7-9%developmental psychology – (chapter 4)
6-8%personality – (chapter 15)
5-7%testing and individual differences – (chapter 11)
7-9%abnormal psychology – (chapter 16)
5-7%treatment of psychological disorders – (chapter 17)
7-9%social psychology – (chapter 18)

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ Famous People to Know
Frances Galton: maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance (human traits are inherited)

Charles Darwin: theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species

William Wundt: introspection-psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science); father of modern or scientific psychology; structuralism was the approach and introspection was the methodology

John Watson: founder of behaviorism; generalization; applied classical conditioning skills to advertising; most famous for Little Albert experiment, where he first trained Albert to be afraid of rats and then to generalize his fear to all small, white animals

Alfred Adler: Neo-Freudian; believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation; believed that people are primarily searching or self-esteem and achieving the ideal self

Carl Jung: disciple of Freud who extended his theories; believed in a collective unconscious as well as a personal unconscious that is aware of ancient archetypes which we inherit from our ancestors and we see in myths (young warrior, wise man of the village, loving mother, etc.); coined the terms introversion and extroversion

Gordon Allport: three levels of traits-- 1. cardinal trait- dominant trait that characterizes your life, 2. central trait- common to all people, 3. secondary trait- surfaces in some situations and not in others

Albert Ellis: father of Rational Emotive Therapy, which focuses on altering client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotion (like, “if I fail the AP exam my life will come to an end”)

Albert Maslow: humanist psychologist who said we have a series of needs which must be met; you can’t achieve the top level, self- actualization, unless the previous levels have been achieved; from bottom to top the levels are physiological needs, safety, belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization; lower needs dominate and individual’s motivation as long as they are unsatisfied

Carl Rogers: humanistic psychologist who believed in unconditional positive regard; people will naturally strive for self- actualization and high self-esteem, unless society taints them; reflected back clients thoughts so that they developed a self- awareness or their feelings; client-centered therapy

B.F. Skinner: operant conditioning-- techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism’s behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Skinner box; believed psychology was not scientific enough; wanted it to be believed everyone is born tableau rosa (blank slate); NOT concerned with unconscious or cause, only behavior

Ivan Pavlov: father of classical conditioning-- an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response, but with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response

Noam Chomsky: believed there are an infinite number of sentences in a language and that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language; words and concepts are learned but the...
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