Ap Psychology Chapter 2 Worksheet Answer

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Objectives:
 
1. Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology. 2. Explain why, at every level, our existence is both part of a larger system and a combination of smaller systems. 3. Describe the structure of a neuron and the pro cess by which an action potential is triggered. 4. Describe how nerve cells communicate, and dis cuss the importance of neurotransmitters for human behavior. 5. Discuss the significance of endorphins, and ex plain how drugs influence neurotransmitters. 6. Identify the major divisions of the nervous sys tem and their primary functions, and describe the neurons that carry information throughout the system. 7. Describe the operation of reflexes in the spinal cord and neural networks in the brain. 8. Identify and explain the methods used in study ing the brain. 9. Describe the functions of structures within the brainstem, as well as those of the thalamus and the cerebellum. 10. Describe the functions of the structures in the lim bic system. 11. Describe the structure and functions of the cere bral cortex. 12. Discuss how damage to one of several different cortical areas can impair language functioning, and outline the process by which the brain directs reading aloud. 13. Discuss brain plasticity and what it reveals about brain reorganization. 14. Describe research on divided and undivided brains, and discuss what it reveals regarding nor mal brain functioning. 15. Discuss the brain organization of left-handed people and why left-handedness seems to dimin ish with age. 16. Discuss the functioning of the endocrine system.

17. Identify two important endocrine glands, and specify their functions.  
Vocabulary:
1. biological psychology –
2. neuron –
3. dendrites –
4. axon –
5. myelin sheath –
6. action potential –
7. threshold –
8. synapse –
9. neurotransmitters –
10. acetylcholine (Ach) –
11. endorphins –
12. nervous system –
13. central nervous system (CNS) –
14. peripheral nervous system (PNS) –
15. nerves –
16. sensory neurons –
17. interneurons –
18. motor neurons –
19. somatic nervous system –
20. autonomic nervous system –
21. sympathetic nervous system –
22. parasympathetic nervous system –
23. reflex –
24. neural networks –
25. lesion –
26. electroencephalogram (EEG) –
27. CT (computed tomography) scan –
28. PET (positron emission tomography) scan –
29. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) –
30. brainstem –
31. medulla –
32. reticular formation –
33. thalamus –
34. cerebellum –
35. limbic system –
36. amygdala –
37. hypothalamus –
38. cerebral cortex –
39. glial cells –
40. frontal lobes –
41. parietal lobes –
42. occipital lobes –
43. temporal lobes –
44. motor cortex –
45. sensory cortex –
46. association areas –
47. aphasia –
48. Broca’s area –
49. Wernicke’s area –
50. plasticity –
51. corpus callosum –
52. split brain –
53. endocrine system –
54. hormones –
55. adrenal glands –
56. pituitary gland –
 
Short Answer:
1. In the most basic sense, every idea, mood, memo ry, and behavior that an individual has ever experienced is a biological phenomenon. 2. The theory that linked our mental abilities to bumps on the skull was phrenology. 3. Researchers who study the links between biology and behavior are called biological psychologists. 4. We are each a system, composed of subsystems that are parts of larger systems. Our body’s neural system is built from billions of nerve cells, or neurons. 5. The extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons are the dendrites. 6. The extensions of a neuron that transmit informa tion to other neurons are the axons; some of these extensions are insulated by a layer of fatty cells called the myelin sheath which helps speed the neuron’s impulses. 7. Identify the major parts of the neuron diagrammed below:

a. dendrites b. cell body, soma, or specifically the nucleus c. axon d. myelin sheath e. nodes of ranvier (not in book)
f. terminal fibers or branches g. terminal buds (not in...
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