Chapter 9 – Memory
MEMORY: The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
FLASHBULB MEMORY: A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. Example: 9/11 Terrorist Attacks
ENCODING: The processing of information into the memory system. Example: Adding meaning to the information.
STORAGE: The retention of encoded information over time.
RETRIEVAL: The process of getting information out of memory storage.
SENSORY MEMORY: The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system:
SHORT-TERM MEMORY: Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
LONG-TERM MEMORY: The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
WORKING MEMORY: A similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information.
AUTOMATIC PROCESSING: Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
EFFORTLESS PROCESSING: Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
REHEARSAL: The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
SPACING EFFECT: The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT: Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
SEMANTIC ENCODING: The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
ACOUSTIC ENCODING: The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
VISUAL ENCODING: The encoding of picture images.
IMAGERY: Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
MNEMONICS: Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
CHUNKING: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
ICONIC MEMORY: A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
ECHOIC MEMORY: Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
LONG-TERM POTENTIATION (LTP): An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
AMNESIA: The loss of memory.
IMPLICIT MEMORY: Retention without conscious recollection (of skills and dispositions). (Also called procedural memory.)
EXPLICIT MEMORY: Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)
HIPPOCAMPUS: A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
RECALL: A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, like on a fill-in-the-blank test.
RECOGNITION: A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, like on a multiple-choice test.
RELEARNING: A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
PRIMING: The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
DÉJÀ VU: Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY: The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.
PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE: The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. (Past learning affects new learning).
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE: The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (New...