1 & 2. Education was “central to the Republican vision of America” because, Jefferson called benignly for a national “crusade against ignorance.” The Republicans believed in the creation of a nationwide system of public schools to create the educated electorate they believed a republic required. Some states endorsed public education for all in the early years of the republic, but none actually created a working system of free schools. The republicans argued that all male citizens should receive free education; with this in thought the *Republican ideology effected the education in the United States because, this left schooling to become very heterogeneous. Such as the responsibilities’ of private institutions’, which were only open to those who could afford it and many private schools were secular and ran by religious groups. They trained students to become a part of the nation’s elite. They had few schools open to the poor, but the education the poor received was inferior to that provided by most schools.
3. The “cultural independence” that Jeffersonian Americans sought another form of nationalism with great fervor. Winning political independence from Europe, they aspired to a form of cultural independence. In the process, they dreamed of American literary and artistic life that would rival the greatest achievements in Europe. Americans believed that their “happy land” was destined to become the “seat of empire” and the “final stage” of civilization, with “glorious works of high invention and of wond'rous art.” The means of expression that this “independence” found was among other places in early American schoolbooks. The author of Geography Made Easy; Jedidiah Morse stated the country must have its own textbooks to prevent aristocratic ideas of England infecting the people. Noah Webster, a schoolmaster and lawyer argued similarly that American students should be educated as patriots, and their minds filled with nationalistic, American thoughts.
4 & 5. The obstacles faced by Americans who aspired to create a more elevated national literary life were a large potential audience for a national literature-a substantial reading public, created in part by the wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets during the Revolution. There were few opportunities for would-be American authors to get their work before the public. Printers preferred to publish popular works by English writers; magazine publishers filled their pages with large items clipped from British periodicals. Only those willing to pay the cost and bear the risks of publishing their own works could compete for public attention. Such authors who were most influential were Joel Barlow who published an epic poem, The Columbiad,
in 1807, in an effort to convey the special character of American civilization. Then there was Charles Brockden Brown, he sought to do more than simply imitate the English forms; he tried to use his novels to give voice to distinctively American themes, to convey the “soaring passions and intellectual energy” of the new nation. Finally there was, History of the Revolution published in 1805, and written by Mercy Otis Warren, emphasized the heroism of the American struggle. Then there was Life of Washington in 1806 by Mason Weems, in which became one of the best-selling books of the era, portrayed the aristocratic former president as a homespun man possessing simple republican virtues.
6 & 7. The American Revolution affected traditional forms of religious practices because it detached churches from government and by elevating ideas of individual liberty and reason that challenged many church traditions. The challenges to these religious traditionalism that arose during this period was “deism” which was embraced by a wide amount of Americans including Jefferson, and Franklin. Deism originated among Enlightenment philosophers in France. Deists accepted the existence of God, but...